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Bed Bug Close Up

Post date: April 26th, 2013

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Bed bug – Wikipedia

Post date: October 16th, 2016

Bed bugs are parasitic insects of the cimicid family that feed exclusively on blood. Cimex lectularius, the common bed bug, is the best known as it prefers to feed on human blood. Other Cimex species specialize in other animals, e.g., bat bugs, such as Cimex pipistrelli (Europe), Cimex pilosellus (western US), and Cimex adjunctus (entire eastern US).[2]

The name bed bug derives from the preferred habitat of Cimex lectularius: warm houses and especially near or inside beds and bedding or other sleep areas. Bed bugs are mainly active at night, but are not exclusively nocturnal. They usually feed on their hosts without being noticed.[3][4][5]

A number of adverse health effects may result from bed bug bites, including skin rashes, psychological effects, and allergic symptoms.[6] Bed bugs are not known to transmit any pathogens as disease vectors. Certain signs and symptoms suggest the presence of bed bugs; finding the adult insects confirms the diagnosis.

Bed bugs have been known as human parasites for thousands of years.[7] At a point in the early 1940s, they were mostly eradicated in the developed world, but have increased in prevalence since 1995, likely due to pesticide resistance, governmental bans on effective pesticides, and international travel.[8][9] Because infestation of human habitats has begun to increase, bed bug bites and related conditions have been on the rise as well.[7][10]

Diagnosis of an infestation involves both finding bed bugs and the occurrence of compatible symptoms.[6] Treatment involves the elimination of the insect (including its eggs) and taking measures to treat symptoms until they resolve.[6]

Bed bug bites or cimicosis may lead to a range of skin manifestations from no visible effects to prominent blisters.[11] Effects include skin rashes, psychological effects, and allergic symptoms.[6]

Although bed bugs can be infected with at least 28 human pathogens, no studies have found that the insects are capable of transmitting any of these to humans.[10] They have been found with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)[12] and with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE), but the significance of this is still unknown.[13]

Investigations into potential transmission of HIV, MRSA, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and hepatitis E have not shown that bed bugs can spread these diseases. However, arboviruses may be transmissible.[14]

Adult bed bugs are light brown to reddish-brown, flattened, oval-shaped, and have no hind wings. The front wings are vestigial and reduced to pad-like structures. Bed bugs have segmented abdomens with microscopic hairs that give them a banded appearance. Adults grow to 45mm (0.160.20in) long and 1.53mm (0.0590.118in) wide.

Newly hatched nymphs are translucent, lighter in color, and become browner as they moult and reach maturity. A bed bug nymph of any age that has just consumed a blood meal has a bright red, translucent abdomen, fading to brown over the next several hours, and to opaque black within two days as the insect digests its meal. Bed bugs may be mistaken for other insects, such as booklice, small cockroaches, or carpet beetles; however, when warm and active, their movements are more ant-like and, like most other true bugs, they emit a characteristic disagreeable odor when crushed.

Bed bugs use pheromones and kairomones to communicate regarding nesting locations, feeding, and reproduction.

The lifespan of bed bugs varies by species and is also dependent on feeding.

Bed bugs can survive a wide range of temperatures and atmospheric compositions.[15] Below 16.1C (61.0F), adults enter semihibernation and can survive longer; they can survive for at least five days at 10C (14F), but die after 15 minutes of exposure to 32C (26F).[16] Common commercial and residential freezers reach temperatures low enough to kill most life stages of bed bug, with 95% mortality after 3 days at 12C (10F).[17] They show high desiccation tolerance, surviving low humidity and a 3540C range even with loss of one-third of body weight; earlier life stages are more susceptible to drying out than later ones.[18]

The thermal death point for C. lectularius is 45C (113F); all stages of life are killed by 7 minutes of exposure to 46C (115F).[16] Bed bugs apparently cannot survive high concentrations of carbon dioxide for very long; exposure to nearly pure nitrogen atmospheres, however, appears to have relatively little effect even after 72 hours.[19]

Bed bugs are obligatory hematophagous (bloodsucking) insects. Most species feed on humans only when other prey are unavailable.[20][21][22] They obtain all the additional moisture they need from water vapor in the surrounding air.[23] Bed bugs are attracted to their hosts primarily by carbon dioxide, secondarily by warmth, and also by certain chemicals.[24][25][26] Bedbugs prefer exposed skin, preferably the face, neck, and arms of a sleeping person.

Bedbugs have mouth parts that saw through the skin, and inject saliva with anticoagulants and painkillers. Sensitivity of humans varies from extreme allergic reaction to no reaction at all (about 20%). The bite usually produces a swelling with no red spot, but when many bugs feed on a small area, reddish spots may appear after the swelling subsides.[16]

Although under certain cool conditions adult bed bugs can live for over a year without feeding,[27] under typically warm conditions they try to feed at five- to ten-day intervals, and adults can survive for about five months without food.[28] Younger instars cannot survive nearly as long, though even the vulnerable newly hatched first instars can survive for weeks without taking a blood meal.

At the 57th annual meeting of the Entomological Society of America in 2009, newer generations of pesticide-resistant bed bugs in Virginia were reported to survive only two months without feeding.[29]

DNA from human blood meals can be recovered from bed bugs for up to 90 days, which mean they can be used for forensic purposes in identifying on whom the bed bugs have fed.[30][31]

A bed bug pierces the skin of its host with a stylet fascicle, rostrum, or "beak". The rostrum is composed of the maxillae and mandibles, which have been modified into elongated shapes from a basic, ancestral style. The right and left maxillary stylets are connected at their midline and a section at the centerline forms a large food canal and a smaller salivary canal. The entire maxillary and mandibular bundle penetrates the skin.[5]

The tips of the right and left maxillary stylets are not the same; the right is hook-like and curved, and the left is straight. The right and left mandibular stylets extend along the outer sides of their respective maxillary stylets and do not reach anywhere near the tip of the fused maxillary stylets. The stylets are retained in a groove in the labium, and during feeding, they are freed from the groove as the jointed labium is bent or folded out of the way; its tip never enters the wound.[5]

The mandibular stylet tips have small teeth, and through alternately moving these stylets back and forth, the insect cuts a path through tissue for the maxillary bundle to reach an appropriately sized blood vessel. Pressure from the blood vessel itself fills the insect with blood in three to five minutes. The bug then withdraws the stylet bundle from the feeding position and retracts it back into the labial groove, folds the entire unit back under the head, and returns to its hiding place.[5] It takes between five and ten minutes for a bed bug to become completely engorged with blood.[32] In all, the insect may spend less than 20 minutes in physical contact with its host, and does not try to feed again until it has either completed a moult or, if an adult, has thoroughly digested the meal.

All bed bugs mate by traumatic insemination.[4][33] Female bed bugs possess a reproductive tract that functions during oviposition, but the male does not use this tract for sperm insemination.[4] Instead, the male pierces the female's abdomen with his hypodermic penis and ejaculates into the body cavity. In all bed bug species except Primicimex cavernis, sperm are injected into the mesospermalege,[4] a component of the spermalege,[4] a secondary genital structure that reduces the wounding and immunological costs of traumatic insemination.[34][35][36] Injected sperm travel via the haemolymph (blood) to sperm storage structures called seminal conceptacles, with fertilisation eventually taking place at the ovaries.[35]

Male bed bugs sometimes attempt to mate with other males and pierce their abdomens.[37] This behaviour occurs because sexual attraction in bed bugs is based primarily on size, and males mount any freshly fed partner regardless of sex.[38] The "bed bug alarm pheromone" consists of (E)-2-octenal and (E)-2-hexenal. It is released when a bed bug is disturbed, as during an attack by a predator. A 2009 study demonstrated the alarm pheromone is also released by male bed bugs to repel other males that attempt to mate with them.[36][39]

Cimex lectularius and C. hemipterus mate with each other given the opportunity, but the eggs then produced are usually sterile. In a 1988 study, one of 479 eggs was fertile and resulted in a hybrid, Cimex hemipterus lectularius.[40][41]

Cimex lectularius males have environmental microbes on their genitals. These microbes damage sperm cells, leaving them unable to fertilize female gametes. Due to these dangerous microbes, males have evolved antimicrobial ejaculate substances that prevent sperm damage. When the microbes contact sperm or the male genitals, the bed bug releases antimicrobial substances. Many species of these microbes live in the bodies of females after mating. The microbes can cause infections in the females. It has been suggested that females receive benefit from the ejaculate. Though the benefit is not direct, females are able to produce more eggs than optimum increasing the amount of the females' genes in the gene pool.[42]

In organisms, sexual selection extends past differential reproduction to affect sperm composition, sperm competition, and ejaculate size. Males of C. lectularius allocate 12% of their sperm and 19% of their seminal fluid per mating. Due to these findings, Reinhard et. al proposed that multiple mating is limited by seminal fluid and not sperm. After measuring ejaculate volume, mating rate and estimating sperm density, Reinhardt et al. showed that mating could be limited by seminal fluid. Despite these advances, the cost difference between ejaculate-dose dependence and mating frequency dependence have not been explored.[43]

Males fertilize females only by traumatic insemination into the structure called the ectospermalege (the organ of Berlese, however the organ of Ribaga, as it was first named, was first designated as an organ of stridulation. These two names are not descriptive, so other terminologies are used). On fertilization, the female's ovaries finish developing, which suggests that sperm plays a role other than fertilizing the egg. Fertilization also allows for egg production through the corpus allatum. Sperm remains viable in a female's spermathecae (a better term is conceptacle), a sperm-carrying sack, for a long period of time as long as body temperature is optimum. The female lays fertilized eggs until she depletes the sperm found in her conceptacle. After the depletion of sperm, she lays a few sterile eggs. The number of eggs a C. lectularius female produces does not depend on the sperm she harbors, but on the female's nutritional level.[44]

In C. lectularius, males sometimes mount other males because male sexual interest is directed at any recently fed individual regardless of their sex, but unfed females may also be mounted. Traumatic insemination is the only way for copulation to occur in bed bugs. Females have evolved the spermalege to protect themselves from wounding and infection. Because males lack this organ, traumatic insemination could leave them badly injured. For this reason, males have evolved alarm pheromones to signal their sex to other males. If a male C. lectularius mounts another male, the mounted male releases the pheromone signal and the male on top stops before insemination.

Females are capable of producing alarm pheromones to avoid multiple mating, but they generally do not do so. Two reasons are proposed as to why females do not release alarm pheromones to protect themselves. First, alarm pheromone production is costly. Due to egg production, females may refrain from spending additional energy on alarm pheromones. The second proposed reason is that releasing the alarm pheromone reduces the benefits associated with multiple mating.[45] Benefits of multiple mating include material benefits, better quality nourishment or more nourishment, genetic benefits including increased fitness of offspring, and finally, the cost of resistance may be higher than the benefit of consentwhich appears the case in C. lectularius.[46]

Bed bugs have five immature nymph life stages and a final sexually mature adult stage.[47] They shed their skins through ecdysis at each stage, discarding their outer exoskeleton, which is somewhat clear, empty exoskeletons of the bugs themselves. Bed bugs must molt six times before becoming fertile adults, and must consume at least one blood meal to complete each moult.[48]

Each of the immature stages lasts about a week, depending on temperature and the availability of food, and the complete lifecycle can be completed in as little as two months (rather long compared to other ectoparasites). Fertilized females with enough food lay three to four eggs each day continually until the end of their lifespans (about nine months under warm conditions), possibly generating as many as 500 eggs in this time.[48]Genetic analysis has shown that a single pregnant bed bug, possibly a single survivor of eradication, can be responsible for an entire infestation over a matter of weeks, rapidly producing generations of offspring.[49]

Slide of Cimex lectularius

Bed bug (4mm length; 2.5mm width), shown in a film roll plastic container, on the right is the recently sloughed skin from its nymph stage

A bed bug nymph feeding on a host

Blood-fed C. lectularius (note the differences in color with respect to digestion of blood meal)

Sexual dimorphism occurs in C. lectularius, with the females larger in size than the males on average. The abdomens of the sexes differ in that the males appear to have "pointed" abdomens, which are actually their copulatory organs, while females have more rounded abdomens. Since males are attracted to large body size, any bed bug with a recent blood meal can be seen as a potential mate. However, males will mount unfed, flat females on occasion. The female is able to curl her abdomen forward and underneath toward the head to not mate. Males are generally unable to discriminate between the sexes until after mounting, but before inseminating.[50]

C. lectularius only feeds every five to seven days, which suggests that it does not spend the majority of its life searching for a host. When a bed bug is starved, it leaves its shelter and searches for a host. If it successfully feeds, it returns to its shelter. If it does not feed, it continues to search for a host. After searchingregardless of whether or not it has eatenthe bed bug returns to the shelter to aggregate before the photophase (period of light during a day-night cycle). Reis argues that two reasons explain why C. lectularius would return to its shelter and aggregate after feeding. One is to find a mate and the other is to find shelter to avoid getting smashed after eating.[51]

C. lectularius aggregates under all life stages and mating conditions. Bed bugs may choose to aggregate because of predation, resistance to desiccation, and more opportunities to find a mate. Airborne pheromones are responsible for aggregations. Another source of aggregation could be the recognition of other C. lectularius bugs through mechanoreceptors located on their antennae. Aggregations are formed and disbanded based on the associated cost and benefits. Females are more often found separate from the aggregation than males. Females are more likely to expand the population range and find new sites. Active female dispersal can account for treatment failures. Males, when found in areas with few females, abandon an aggregation to find a new mate. The males excrete an aggregation pheromone into the air that attracts virgin females and arrests other males.[52]

Bed bugs can exist singly, but tend to congregate once established. Though strictly parasitic, they spend only a tiny fraction of their lifecycles physically attached to hosts. Once a bed bug finishes feeding, it relocates to a place close to a known host, commonly in or near beds or couches in clusters of adults, juveniles, and eggswhich entomologists call harborage areas or simply harborages to which the insect returns after future feedings by following chemical trails. These places can vary greatly in format, including luggage, inside of vehicles, within furniture, amongst bedside cluttereven inside electrical sockets and nearby laptop computers. Bed bugs may also nest near animals that have nested within a dwelling, such as bats, birds,[53] or rodents. They are also capable of surviving on domestic cats and dogs, though humans are the preferred host of C. lectularius.[54]

Bed bugs can also be detected by their characteristic smell of rotting raspberries.[55]Bed bug detection dogs are trained to pinpoint infestations, with a possible accuracy rate between 11% and 83%.[56]

Eradication of bed bugs frequently requires a combination of nonpesticide approaches and the occasional use of pesticides.[7][10]

Mechanical approaches, such as vacuuming up the insects and heat-treating or wrapping mattresses, are effective.[7][56] A combination of heat and drying treatments is most effective. An hour at a temperature of 45C (113F) or over, or two hours at less than 17C (1F) kills them;[56] a domestic clothes drier or steam kills bedbugs.[16] Another study found 100% mortality rates for bed bugs exposed to temperatures greater than 50C (122F) for more than 2 minutes.[57] Starving them is difficult as they can survive without eating for 100 to 300 days, depending on temperature.[56] For public health reasons, individuals are encouraged to call a professional pest control service to eradicate bed bugs in a home, rather than attempting to do it themselves, particularly if they live in a multifamily building.[58]

As of 2012[update], no truly effective pesticides were available.[56] Pesticides that have historically been found effective include pyrethroids, dichlorvos, and malathion.[10] Resistance to pesticides has increased significantly over time, and harm to health from their use is of concern.[7] The carbamate insecticide propoxur is highly toxic to bed bugs, but it has potential toxicity to children exposed to it, and the US Environmental Protection Agency has been reluctant to approve it for indoor use.[59]Boric acid, occasionally applied as a safe indoor insecticide, is not effective against bed bugs because they do not groom.[60][dubious discuss] The fungus Beauveria bassiana is being researched as of 2012[update] for its ability to control bed bugs.[61] As bed bugs continue to adapt pesticide resistance, researchers have examined on the insect's genome to see how the adaptations develop and to look for potential vulnerabilities that can be exploited in the growth and development phases.[62]

Natural enemies of bed bugs include the masked hunter insect (also known as "masked bed bug hunter"),[63]cockroaches,[64]ants, spiders (particularly Thanatus flavidus), mites, and centipedes (particularly the house centipede Scutigera coleoptrata). However, biological pest control is not considered practical for eliminating bed bugs from human dwellings.[16]

Bed bugs occur around the world.[65] Rates of infestations in developed countries, while decreasing from the 1930s to the 1980s, have increased dramatically since the 1980s.[7][10][65] Previously, they were common in the developing world, but rare in the developed world.[10] The increase in the developed world may have been caused by increased international travel, resistance to insecticides, and the use of new pest-control methods that do not affect bed bugs.[66][67]

The fall in bed bug populations after the 1930s in the developed world is believed partly due to the use of DDT to kill cockroaches.[68] The invention of the vacuum cleaner and simplification of furniture design may have also played a role.[68] Others believe it might simply be the cyclical nature of the organism.[69]

The exact causes of this resurgence remain unclear; it is variously ascribed to greater foreign travel, increased immigration from the developing world to the developed world, more frequent exchange of second-hand furnishings among homes, a greater focus on control of other pests, resulting in neglect of bed bug countermeasures, and increasing resistance to pesticides.[10][66] Declines in household cockroach populations that have resulted from the use of insecticides effective against this major bed bug predator have aided the bed bugs' resurgence, as have bans on DDT and other potent pesticides.[70]

The common bed bug (C. lectularius) is the species best adapted to human environments. It is found in temperate climates throughout the world. Other species include Cimex hemipterus, found in tropical regions, which also infests poultry and bats, and Leptocimex boueti, found in the tropics of West Africa and South America, which infests bats and humans. Cimex pilosellus and Cimex pipistrella primarily infest bats, while Haematosiphon inodora, a species of North America, primarily infests poultry.[71]

C. lectularius may have originated in the Middle East in caves inhabited by bats and humans.[21]

Bed bugs were mentioned in ancient Greece as early as 400 BC, and were later mentioned by Aristotle. Pliny's Natural History, first published circa 77 AD in Rome, claimed bed bugs had medicinal value in treating ailments such as snake bites and ear infections. (Belief in the medicinal use of bed bugs persisted until at least the 18th century, when Guettard recommended their use in the treatment of hysteria.[72])

Bed bugs were first mentioned in Germany in the 11th century, in France in the 13th century, and in England in 1583,[21] though they remained rare in England until 1670. Some in the 18th century believed bed bugs had been brought to London with supplies of wood to rebuild the city after the Great Fire of London (1666). Giovanni Antonio Scopoli noted their presence in Carniola (roughly equivalent to present-day Slovenia) in the 18th century.[73][74]

Traditional methods of repelling and/or killing bed bugs include the use of plants, fungi, and insects (or their extracts), such as black pepper;[75]black cohosh (Actaea racemosa); Pseudarthria hookeri; Laggera alata (Chinese yngmo co | );[16]Eucalyptus saligna oil;[76][77]henna (Lawsonia inermis or camphire);[78] "infused oil of Melolontha vulgaris" (presumably cockchafer); fly agaric (Amanita muscaria); Actaea spp. (e.g. black cohosh); tobacco; "heated oil of Terebinthina" (i.e. true turpentine); wild mint (Mentha arvensis); narrow-leaved pepperwort (Lepidium ruderale); Myrica spp. (e.g. bayberry); Robert geranium (Geranium robertianum); bugbane (Cimicifuga spp.); "herb and seeds of Cannabis"; "opulus" berries (possibly maple or European cranberrybush); masked hunter bugs (Reduvius personatus), "and many others".[79]

In the mid-19th century, smoke from peat fires was recommended as an indoor domestic fumigant against bed bugs.[80]

Dusts have been used to ward off insects from grain storage for centuries, including "plant ash, lime, dolomite, certain types of soil, and diatomaceous earth or Kieselguhr".[81] Of these, diatomaceous earth in particular has seen a revival as a nontoxic (when in amorphous form) residual pesticide for bed bug abatement. While diatomaceous earth performed poorly, silica gel may be effective.[82][83]

Basket-work panels were put around beds and shaken out in the morning in the UK and in France in the 19th century. Scattering leaves of plants with microscopic hooked hairs around a bed at night, then sweeping them up in the morning and burning them, was a technique reportedly used in Southern Rhodesia and in the Balkans.[84]

Bean leaves have been used historically to trap bedbugs in houses in Eastern Europe. The trichomes on the bean leaves capture the insects by impaling the feet (tarsi) of the insects. The leaves are then destroyed.[85]

Prior to the mid-20th century, bed bugs were very common. According to a report by the UK Ministry of Health, in 1933, all the houses in many areas had some degree of bed bug infestation.[86] The increase in bed bug populations in the early 20th century has been attributed to the advent of electric heating, which allowed bed bugs to thrive year-round instead of only in warm weather.[87]

Bed bugs were a serious problem at U.S. military bases during World War II.[88] Initially, the problem was solved by fumigation, using Zyklon Discoids that released hydrogen cyanide gas, a rather dangerous procedure.[88] Later, DDT was used to good effect as a safer alternative.[88]

The decline of bed bug populations in the 20th century is often credited to potent pesticides that had not previously been widely available.[89] Other contributing factors that are less frequently mentioned in news reports are increased public awareness and slum clearance programs that combined pesticide use with steam disinfection, relocation of slum dwellers to new housing, and in some cases also follow-up inspections for several months after relocated tenants moved into their new housing.[87]

Bed bug infestations resurged since the 1980s[49] for reasons that are not clear, but contributing factors may be complacency, increased resistance, bans on pesticides, and increased international travel.[89] The U.S. National Pest Management Association reported a 71% increase in bed bug calls between 2000 and 2005.[90] The number of reported incidents in New York City alone rose from 500 in 2004 to 10,000 in 2009.[91] In 2013, Chicago was listed as the number 1 city in the United States with the worst bed bug infestation.[92] As a result, the Chicago City Council passed a bed bug control ordinance to limit their spread. Additionally, bed bugs are reaching places in which they never established before, such as southern South America.[93][94]

One recent theory about bed bug reappearance in the US is that they never truly disappeared, but may have been forced to alternative hosts. Consistent with this is the finding that bed bug DNA shows no evidence of an evolutionary bottleneck. Furthermore, investigators have found high populations of bed bugs at poultry facilities in Arkansas. Poultry workers at these facilities may be spreading bed bugs, unknowingly carrying them to their places of residence and elsewhere after leaving work.[95][96]

The saying, "Good night, sleep tight, don't let the bed bugs bite", is common for parents to say to young children before they go to sleep.[97]

In Chhattisgarh, India, bed bugs have been used as a traditional medicine for alopecia, epilepsy, piles, and urinary disorders, but this practice has no scientific basis.[98] Bed bug secretions can inhibit the growth of some bacteria and fungi; antibacterial components from the bed bug could be used against human pathogens, and be a source of pharmacologically active molecules as a resource for the discovery of new drugs.[99]

The word bug and its earlier spelling bugge originally meant "bed bug". Many other creatures are now called "bugs", such as the "ladybug" ("ladybird" outside North America) and the "potato bug"; the word is used informally for any insect, or even microscopic germs or diseases caused by these germs, but the earliest recorded use of the actual word "bug" referred to a bed bug.[100]

The term "bed bug" may also be spelled "bedbug" or "bed-bug", though published sources consistently use the unhyphenated two-word name "bed bug".[101] The pests have been known by a variety of other informal names, including chilly billies, chinche bug, crimson rambler, heavy dragoon, mahogany flat, redcoat, and wall louse.[60]

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In bed with…

Post date: September 25th, 2016

Macroloupe posted a photo:

In bed with...

Bed Bugs
Punaise des lits : Cimec Lectularius
Voici un "vampire" qui affectionne particulièrement les êtres humains, les chauves-souris et les oiseaux.

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Bientôt chez vous – Soon home

Post date: September 24th, 2016

Macroloupe posted a photo:

Bientôt chez vous - Soon home

Bed Bugs - Cimex lectularius
Voici un "vampire" qui affectionne particulièrement les êtres humains, les chauves-souris et les oiseaux.

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Pictures of Bed Bug Bites –

Post date: September 19th, 2016

11 of 28

Use to navigate.

Pictures of bed bug bites on a woman's ankle Bed Bug Bites on Ankle.

Cheryl spent a week at a beautiful resort and came back with a souvenir she didn't count on. She says, "Our vacation was wonderful, the villa spotlessly clean, the resort employees very friendly and helpful, the food was good overall and truly excellent in the specialty restaurants for dinner...Bed bugs would be my only complaint! Now I know what to look for BEFORE getting into bed no matter where I may travel!

"The photo shows some of the bed bug bites I received on my ankle while vacationing in a beautiful villa. At first we thought we were getting multiple bites from mosquitoes or sand fleas but once I started noticing that when I woke up, I had bites around my neckline, arms, wrists, and legs in patterns of mostly three (breakfast, lunch, and dinner...yuck!!) I realized what they were. The photo is what some of the bites looked like after 10 days or more.

"I am hoping that I didn't bring any bugs home with me!! I have taken initial steps to determine whether the problem has followed me home by having my daughter count the bites around my neckline to see if more show up. I also steamed, vacuumed, and sprayed rubbing alcohol all over my fairly new pillow top mattress and box springs; steamed, washed and dried all the bed linens using hot water and bleach; sprayed rubbing alcohol all over my baggage inside and out; and vacuumed my bedroom thoroughly.

Hopefully, I am just doing this as a precaution and there aren't any bugs that traveled home with me.

I realize that if there are any bugs I will probably need professional help to deal with them and that I can probably kiss my mattress goodbye!"

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Mattress Cleaning Gold Coasts, Professional Cleaners

Mattress Bed Cleaning Services Dust Mite Removal - The MattressKleen System kills and removes dust mites, their excrement, your dead skin, allergies, virus, bacteria, mould spores and can provide protection for up to 6 months.

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This is a book louse (psocid), submitted for ID in the forums. Many bedbuggers have mistaken book lice for bed bug nymphs. Notice the shape of the body is elongated, with three clear segments. Theres a pronounced head.

Compare this photo from L. Sorkin and R. Mercurio of a bed bug nymph:

Both book lice and bed bug nymphs are light colored but bed bug nymphs have a less elongated body. Bed bug nymphs dont look like they have a neck, whereas book lice do. Bed bug nymphs are clear but will become red when they have fed.

If you find a book louse, dont worry they are common in homes and dont usually pose a problem. Despite the louse in the name, they dont have anything to do with species that feed on humans. If you want to learn more about psocids including book lice, heres a fact sheet from the University of Minnesota: Psocids in Homes, by Jeffrey Hahn and Steven Kells.

Many thanks to the user who shared the book louse photo, and gave us permission to use it here.

Updated 8/2016

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Some fast bed bugfacts What do bed bugs look like? Briefly: 1/4 long, oval, flat, 6 legs, and reddish-brown.

A bed bug has 6 legs. Its antennae point forward and are about half as long as the bodynot longer. Its head is broadly attached to its body and it has no wings. Eight legs indicate a tick or mite. Six legs and long antennae with two spikes coming off the back (cerci) might be a roach nymph. Carpet beetle larvae have hairs all over their bodies. Carpet beetle adults have two hard wings.

A drop of blood with legs is probably a recently fed bed bug. It will be red, plump, and oval. After it digests its meal, itll be mahogany-colored, round, and flat. Unfed nymphs are tan. Eggs are oval, white, and stick to whatever theyre laid on.

You can see the adultstheyre about 1/4 long. The trick is finding their hiding spots. They can wedge themselves into any crack or crevice. If the edge of a credit card can fit, so can a bed bug. Eggs and just-hatched nymphs are tiny: 1/16 (1mm) longthe size of the R in LIBERTY on a penny. Theyll plump up after feedingjust like a mosquito.

Bed bugs crawlscurrying into dark, tight spaces to hidethey move as fast as an ant. They cant jump or fly and youll never find them burrowing into your skin. If the insect you have came out on its own accord at night when the lights were out near the bed or a couch, it was probably a bed bug looking for a meal. Bed bugs arent social insects like ants, so they dont need a colony. But while they group together in good hiding spots, loners could be hiding elsewhere.

More on bed bug biology (and yes, it matters): they have an odd way of making babies. Its called traumatic insemination. Males simply stab females in the side with their reproductive organ and inject their sperm, which makes its way to her eggs. Females recover from one mating, but several matings increase the chance of infection and death. Females may try to get away from groups of males and go off and hide alone to avoid being stabbed to death. If you dont find those females, theyll keep laying eggs and could restart an infestation: a good reason to get a pest management professional (PMP) involved. Good PMPs know how to find them and how to target every hiding place without harming people.

If the bugs you think are bed bugs come in the spring but go away during the summer they might be bat bugs. Bats in attics hibernate elsewhere during the winter. Bat bugs that are left behind and chill out for the winter, literally, but if warm weather comes before the bats return, they may seek another host to tide them over. In this scenario, inspect the attic and external wall voids for bat guano and bugs in cracks and crevices. Have a professional treat these roosts as well as the rooms bed bugs were found in. To prevent bat re-entry, repair all holes 1/4 or larger that lead to the outside.

Bed bugs are also known as: Cimex lectularius, chinches de camas, chintzes or chinches, mahogany flats, red coats, crimson ramblers, wall lice, the bug that nobody knows, lentils on legs, animated blood drops.

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If you ever heard that nursery rhyme "Good night, sleep tight, dont let the bed bugs bite, you know these critters bite in the night. But most of us never heard of them in real life until now.

The serious negative effects of bed bugs are more mental than physical, but the itchy bites cant be ignored either.

The mental effects are stress and lack of sleep. (And then theres delusory parasitosismeaning the bugs really are gone, but you cant shake the feeling that theyre still there.) Even if the thought of sleeping with bed bugs doesnt keep you up at night, the time and money it takes to get rid of them can stress you out.

Bed bugs can be a public relations nightmare. Youd hope customers would respect a proactive hotel, motel, or landlord who tried to educate them before a problem came in, but thats rarely the case. Simply the mention of bed bugs can deter customers.

And householders worry what friends, family, and neighbors will say if their problem becomes known. Bed bugs arent associated with filth or social status, but many people think they are.

Bed bugs arent known to transmit disease. And some people dont even get marks when bit. But scratching bites can lead to a secondary infection. Resist the urge to scratch. People with health problems and children are more at risk for infection because their immune systems are compromised or they cant stop scratching.

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You cant describe the bites as looking only one way. Some look and feel like mosquito or flea bites. Some people dont react at all. On the opposite extreme, others get big itchy welts that take two or more weeks to heal. Theres a myth that bed bug bites occur in threes (breakfast, lunch, and dinner), but its not true. Bites can occur singly, in clumps, or in a line. Bites can show up within hoursor two weeks later. Confirming an infestation on bites alone is impossible. You need evidence: a bed bug.

Bed bugs usually feed while people sleep, about an hour before dawn. But if theyre hungry and given the opportunity, they feed anytime. Feeding itself is painlessthe bed bugs saliva numbs the skin and makes the blood easier to drink. But later, many people react to the saliva, getting itchy bumps or rashes. After feeding for about five minutes, drawing only a drop or two of blood, bugs return to their hiding places. Although bed bugs can live for over a year without feeding, they typically seek blood every five to ten days.

The only way to know for sure what bit you is to find a bug and get it identified.

Bed bugs live off only bloodlike mosquitoes do. They probably prefer to feed on people. But if people move out, bed bugs can survive by feeding on rats or miceso control these pests, too. Theyre attracted by warmth and the presence of carbon dioxidewhat we animals breathe out. They usually feed about an hour before dawn, but given the opportunity, they may feed at other times of day or night.

Remembernot everyone reacts to bed bug bites. (Not everyone reacts to poison ivy, either.) You could get an itchy rash while your home companion getsnothing.

If you think bed bugs bit you, have a PMP do a thorough inspection to determine whether an arthropod is in your living space, or send samples to a diagnostic lab.

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Bed bugs may have evolved when a close relative, the bat bug, switched to feeding off cave-dwelling humans. The ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans wrote about them. They were part of many peoples lives in the U.S. and around the world before World War II.

Then DDT came along. DDT seemed wonderful at the time. Unlike most of the insecticides sold in stores today, DDT had a lasting effecta long residual effect. Insects died when they crawled where DDT was used, even if it had been there for weeks. Though most homeowners used DDT for large pests like cockroaches, it did the bed bugs in too. When the bed bugs came out to feed, there was something there to kill them.

Modern furnishings and appliances helped too. Bed bugs dont care if a home is clean or messy. They just like good hiding spotsand food. When modern furniture came into style they had fewer hiding spots. Home appliances such as washing machines and vacuums helped keep them at bay. Bed bugs were a rarity in the US from the early 1950s through the late 1990s. A whole generation of people grew up whod never seen one.

By the mid 1970s insecticides like DDT, which were blamed for environmental problems, were on the outs. The pest control industry began to use the environmentally friendly approaches common today. Using noninsecticide traps and monitors, blocking entry into homes, and using pest-specific, least-toxic insecticides became the staples of an integrated pest management approach.

Bed bugs had been off the radar for so long they were almost forgotten. By the time anyone noticed, they were back in a big way. Right now there are no traps or monitors proven to detect a population when its still small. And since bed bugs travel on things such as luggage, souvenirs, and furniture we bring into our homes, its hard to block their entry.

Fortunately, some modern insecticides work well. Because these insecticides break down quicklymaking them safer for humansthey may not be around to kill the bed bugs that hatch from eggs laid before the insecticide was applied. Two or more carefully targeted applications are the best way to eliminate bed bugs. Leave insecticides to the professionalseven the right ones, used incorrectly, can scatter bed bugs to other rooms. It would take an extremely capable and dedicated person to learn and do everything necessary to get rid of bed bugs on their own.

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Any place with a high turnover of people spending the nighthostels, hotels near airports, and resortsare most at risk. But the list continues apartments, barracks, buses, cabins, churches, community centers, cruise ships, dormitories, dressing rooms, health clubs, homes, hospitals, jets, laundromats, motels, motor homes, moving vans, nursing homes, office buildings, resorts, restaurants, schools, subways, theaters, trains, used furniture outlets. Bed bugs dont prefer locations based on sanitation or peoples hygiene. If theres blood, theyre happy.

Bed bugs and their relatives occur nearly worldwide. They became relatively scarce during the latter part of the 20th century, but their populations have resurged in recent years, particularly throughout parts of North America, Europe, and Australia.

What about in your home? Most stay near where people sleep, hiding near the bed, a couch or armchair (if thats where you snooze)even cribs and playpens. Their flat bodies allow them to hide in cracks and crevices around the room and in furniture joints. Hiding sites include mattress seams, bed frames, nearby furniture, or baseboards. Clutter offers more places to hide and makes it harder to get rid of them. Bed bugs can be found alone but more often congregate in groups. Theyre not social insects, though, and dont build nests.

How infestations spread through a home or within an apartment building differs from case to case. Inspect all adjacent rooms. Bed bugs travel easily along pipes and wires and the insides of walls can harbor them.

Before treating, you need to confirm that you have bed bugs. The only way to do that is to find a bug and get it identified.

Look in the most likely places first. We tell you how. If you find one, freeze it for identification or put it in a sealed jar with a 1 tsp. of rubbing alcohol. Then stop lookingyou dont want to disrupt the bugsand call a professional.

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Look for bed bugs in all their life stages: eggs, nymphs and adults. Also look for cast skins and blood spots. But note: blood spots, hatched eggs, and cast skins may be from an infestation thats been dealt with already. Live bed bugs are the only confirming evidence. Use a flashlighteven if the area is well litand work systematically. A magnifying glass will help you zoom in on hard to see spots. Start with one corner of the mattress and work around the piping, down the sides, and underneath. Do the same with the box spring. If you own the bed, slowly remove the dust cover (ticking) on the bottom of the box spring and seal in a trash bag. Next, inspect the bed frame. If you can take it apart, do so. Bed bugs could be hiding in the joints.

No bed bugs yet? Work out from the bed in a systematic way (clockwise or counter-clockwise) to the walls of the room. Look in the pleats of curtains, beneath loose pieces of wallpaper near the bed, the corners and drawers of desks and dressers, within spaces of wicker furniture, behind door, window, and baseboard trim, and in laundry or other items on the floor or around the room such as cardboard boxes. Inspect everything. Any crack, crevice, or joint a credit card edge could fit in could hide adult bed bugs. This routine gives you a systematic approach and increases the chance youll find evidence early on.

One last way to inspectabout an hour before dawn, lift the sheets and turn on a flashlight. It might lead to a discovery, but this method can also be unsettling.

If you dont find bed bugs but bites continue or you find blood spots on bedding, contact a professional with bed bug experience and have them inspect.

Professional inspection may be done by a person or by a bed bug-sniffing dog and its handler. Dogs have a powerful sense of smell and can be trained to find bed bugs (which do give off an odor). Theyre best used to find infestations. If used to tell whether bed bugs are gone, they may find old evidence rather than fresh. If you hire a handler and dog, be sure theyre accredited.

If you find bed bugs at home, its best to keep sleeping in the bedor try to find someone who will sleep there. Packing up to spend time elsewhere could bring bugs to an uninfested area. And the bugs could move to neighboring rooms in search of a meal.

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Put specimens in small, break-resistant containers such as a plastic pill bottle or a zipper-lock bag with 1 tsp of rubbing alcohol in it. Or tape them to a sheet of white paper with clear tape.

First, look at pictures on university websites. If you think its a bed bug, package it carefully to prevent damage and send to an expert for positive identification. Bed bugs have close relatives: poultry bugs, barn swallow bugs, bat bugs, and tropical bed bugs to name a few. They too can feed on humans and act like bed bugs do. For accurate identification, send a samplepreferably several adultsto a Cooperative Extension diagnostic lab.

If the critter is, for example, a bat bug, call a professional wildlife control operator to find and remove bats, then prevent their re-entry.

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Bed bugs come in as stowaways in luggage, furniture, clothing, pillows, boxes, and more when these are moved between dwellings. Moving out wont solve the problem, since bed bugs will just come with you. In fact, while dealing with bed bugs its best not to sleep away from home. Used furniture, particularly bed frames and mattresses, are most likely to harbor bed bugs. Watch out for items found on the curb! Because they survive for many months without food, bed bugs could already be present in clean, vacant apartments.

In a few cases, bats or birds could introduce and maintain bed bugs and their close relativesusually bat bugs and bird bugs.

The source of the infestation determines where your inspection should start. Look through these scenarios and see which fits:

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Insecticidal dusts will remain effective if not covered by other dust. As part of the IPM approach, routine spraying of insecticides is strongly discouraged. Bed bugs do not spread disease, but insecticides do pose risks. Only use them when the pest insect is confirmed and the least-toxic steps have been tried. As a preventative measure alternative to insecticides, inspect and clean regularly, keeping bed bug-hiding spots in mind.

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Every traveler should learn about bed bugs. Always inspect before settling into any room. Pack a flashlight (even the keychain LED variety) and gloves to aid in your inspection. The inspection should focus around the bed. Start with the headboard, which is usually held on the wall with bracketslift up 1 2 inches, then lean the top away from the wall to gain access to the back. If youre traveling alone, someone on staff should help. After checking the headboard, check sheets and pillows for blood spots. Next, pull back the sheets. Check the piping of the mattress and box spring. Finally, look in and under the drawer of the bedside table. If all these places are clear, enjoy the night. The next morning, look for blood spots on the sheetsbed bugs poop soon after they feed.

If you find evidence, but no live bed bugs, the evidence may be old and doesnt mean that the hotel is dirty. Tell the front desk discreetly what you found and ask for another roomone that doesnt share a wall with the room you just vacated. Bed bugs are a PR nightmare for the hospitality industry. If you run to a competitor (whos just as likely to have bed bugs) it makes it less likely that the industry will become more open about this issue. Communication is key. Ideally hotels and motels would pride themselves on their bed bug programs and show customers how to inspect to keep all parties bed bug free.

If you can avoid it, dont unpack into drawers and keep luggage closed on a luggage rack pulled away from the wall. Never set luggage on the bed.

Download and print a copy ofNYS IPMs travelers cards.

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Launder your clothes before or as soon as these items are brought back into the home. If you found bed bugs after moving into a hotel room, you could ask the hotel to pay for launderingand for steam-cleaning your luggage. The hotel may refuse, but its worth asking. Regardless, once home you should unpack on a floor that will allow you to see bed bugsstay off carpets! Unpack directly into plastic bags for taking clothes to the laundry. Suitcases should be carefully inspected and vacuumedfreeze if possible.

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Its unlikely that a bed bug would travel on you or the clothes you are wearing. You move too much to be a good hiding place. Bed bugs are more likely to be spread via luggage, backpacks, briefcases, mattresses, and used furniture.

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Adults are , reddish-brown and flat. You can see them without magnification.

They like to hide in cracks and crevices.

Inspect sleeping areasif you find a bed bug, STOP looking and contact a professional.

Do-it-yourself pest control could make bed bugs to spread. Launder and freeze when possible.

Live bugs or eggs may drop off while moving things from one place to anotheritems with bed bugs should be sealed in a bag before moving them.

Avoid used furniture and items left on the curbthey might have bed bugs!

Tell your friends! Not warning others robs them of the chance to avoid bringing bed bugs into their homes and businesses.

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Step back a minute. Because several different kinds of insects resemble bed bugs, specimens should be carefully compared with good reference images and sent to a professional entomologist.

Next: make a plan. Well tell you how. You want to get rid of bed bugs, limit your exposure to insecticides, and minimize costs. Dont get rid of stuff and dont treat unless you have a plan. A big part of your plan: hire an experienced professional. Trust us, itll save you time and money in the long run. Youll still have a lot to dojust leave the insecticides to the pros. Working as a team with a professional is the quickest way to get bed bugs out of your life.

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is the way to go for pest control. Its cost-effective, it works, and it lessens reliance on insecticides. Note: IPM doesnt mean no insecticides. You should call a professional dedicated to IPM so the least amount of insecticides can be used and still work.

Inspection:ALWAYS inspect. Proper identification helps you know what to do and where to target your efforts. Along with looking, you should write down what you do and see. Use this reporting form to track what youve done. Having a history will help if more people become involved.

Educate yourself:find out about bed bug biology and behavior to become even more effective.

Cultural and Mechanical Control:This makes your home unwelcoming to bed bugs, blocks them from feeding, or at least makes finding them easier. Dont skip these steps and go straight to insecticides. Examples:

Biological Control:No known biological control agents target bed bugs well enough to keep them at bay.

Chemical Control:Insecticides supplement but dont replace your work. Get a pest management professional (PMP) involved. Licensed PMPs know what products, in what formulations, should be usedand where. PMPs know how to be selective and effectivefewer insecticides used and best results. Any insecticide used should be labeled for the pest and location where it is being used. Many products are not labeled for mattresses.

Hire only professional pest control companies with licensed PMPs who are affiliated with a state or national association. This helps ensure that the company stays up-to-date on the current practices and only uses legal insecticides. PMPs are trained for sensitive situations: people who are ill, children, pregnant women, pets, and more. They know how to properly apply insecticides. They also know best how to find bed bugs. PMPs will not use illegal insecticides. If you use insecticides but they dont work and then you still have to call in a professional, overall insecticide use will be higher. Plus, what you used could drive bed bugs into new areasmaking removal a longer and pricier process.

Monitoring:This involves inspecting regularly to be sure:

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The question, Whos responsible for a bed bug infestation? has no clear answer. Its hard even to identify whos technically at fault because bed bugs can enter a space in so many ways. Landlords and property owners do have legal obligations to provide safe and habitable accommodations for tenants. Bed bugs may be an unacceptable condition. Tenants have an obligation to cooperate with owners and landlords. This includes preparing the apartment so the pest management professional can easily inspect rooms and treat if necessary.

You are legally liable if you misapply an insecticide or apply it without a license to the property of othersincluding common spaces in apartment buildings. In most cases, landlords, owners and building managers cannot legally apply insecticides unless they are licensed to do so.

Laws are changing and every situation is different. Local health departments and law offices have the best answers to legal questions. The only thing thats for sure is that bed bug problems wont just work themselves out. Left untreated, they will spread. The best way to cover all bases is to inform all who are potentially involved early onmanagers, neighbors, friends

Landlords and tenants should make sure bed bug work is specified in their lease. For example, an agreement that requires tenants to do thorough preparation for bed bug treatment and to leave the living space while a pest management professional (PMP) works can go a long way if bed bugs arrive. The PMP should visit all rooms or units that share a wall (including directly above and below). Everyone needs to cooperate. Having a plan ready can save time, frustration, and money.

If you are a landlord, inspection should be done often with the permission of the tenant. Some tenants will not view bed bugs as a problem. It can get ugly if their infestation spreads to other units and unhappy tenants report that they have bed bugs. Inspect often to find infestations before they spread.

Safety is always the #1 priority. Bed bugs arent known to spread disease. Dont put yourself or PMPs in danger on account of bed bugs. Anyone who inspects apartments must be cautious of sharp objects or weapons under mattresses or in furniture. Always look with a flashlight before touching.

Document ALL prevention and control in a unit. This helps prove you took precautions and helps PMPs evaluate the situation.

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Dont put the legs of the bed frame in kerosene or coat them with petroleum jelly. Bed bugs have been known to climb on the ceiling and drop down onto the bed. Plus kerosene is a fire hazard.

Dont depend on thyme oil. Thyme oil may discourage bed bugs, but it wont kill them. Chances are itll spread, not fix, the problem.

Dont leave the home unoccupied through a winter as a control measure. Bed bugs have adapted to the unpredictable habits of humans. If given time to go dormantfor example, in a vacation cabin that slowly gets cooler, then cold over fall and winterbed bugs can survive, living without a meal for many months while waiting for humans to return. The quick penetration of killing cold (or heat) is the key to any temperature treatment.

Dont turn up the heat. Exposing bed bugs to 120 F or more an hour will kill all life stagesand whole-structure or container heat treatments do work. But the caution is similar to using cold. High heat must be maintained at every point in the building: the outer walls, deep in the sofa, etc. for the full hour. Professionals enclose the structure, using tools to guarantee that it reaches the right temperature. If you go with a full-structure heat treatment, consider if the heat could damage furniture, appliances, and belongings.

Dont sleep with a light on. Bed bugs feed when hosts are inactive. Usually thats when its darkbut theyll feed under lights if theyre hungry.

Dont sleep in a different room. Bed bugs will move to a neighboring room if they cant find food. And they can live months between meals. Sleeping in a different room, staying at a hotel, or moving in with friends wont solve the problem. And the chances of carrying the bugs to a new place are good. Keep sleeping in your bed. If you have awful reactions to the bites, try to get someone to sleep in the bed.

Dont throw a bed bug-infested mattress away and buy a new mattress. Buying a new mattress wont solve the problem. Bed bugs hide in more than just mattresses. New mattresses might be transported in the same trucks that pick up used and possibly contaminated ones. If you need a new mattress, wait until the infestation is eliminated before buying a new one. (Remember: A bed bug-proof mattress and box-spring encasement kept in place for 1 years will starve them to death. Inspect often for torn spots in the encasement (and evidence of bed bugs).

Dont dispose of good furniture. Infested furniture can be cleaned and treated. Placing infested furniture (particularly mattresses) into common areas or on the street could spread bed bugs to other peoples homes. If youre getting rid of infested furniture, deface it: make it less attractive to other people. Paint a picture of a bug on it and write bed bugs or chinches. Building managers should make sure disposed furniture is in a dumpster or taken to a landfill or waste facility right away.

Dont wrap items in black plastic and leave them in the sun: it needs to get hotter than that to kill bed bugs, and heat needs to evenly penetrate the entire item.

Dont move infested items out of the room without wrapping them in plastic. Bed bugs or eggs could be knocked off into an uninfested area.

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Intro- Bedbugs and you are strange bedfellows
Picture this: the classic Bollywood song scenario- you are chasing your lover through a field of flowers. She inevitably reaches a tree and you both run around a bit. Then the lover pokes her head out from behind the tree like she’s coming out...

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