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Bed Bug Life Cycle: Eggs, Nymphs,& Adult Stages

Post date: October 22nd, 2017

Bed bugs are nocturnal, reddish-brown insects that feed on the bloodof humans and other warm-blooded animals. These wingless insects have dorsoventrally flattened bodies that allow them to hide in areas such as floor cracks, carpets, beds and upholstered furniture.

A bed bugs life begins with an egg, grain like and milky white in color. Female bed bugs lay between one and five eggs each day and may lie up to 500 eggs within one lifetime. Eggs are laid singly or in clusters and are placed withintight cracks or crevices. The egg is approximately 1 mm in length and is comparable in size to two grains of salt. Within two weeks, eggs hatch and immature bed bugs begin immediately to feed.

These young bed bugs, or nymphs, pass through five molts before reaching maturity. Although nymphs appear similar to adults, they are smaller in size and are not yet sexually mature.Young nymphs are also yellow-white in color, while older nymphs and adults are reddish-brown. In order to complete a molting stage, each nymph requires a blood meal. At room temperature, nymphs molt and become adults within five weeks.

Upon reaching maturity, bed bug adults often make weekly feedings.

Adult Bed Bug

How Long Do They Live?The life span of a bed bug most commonly ranges from four to six months. However, some bed bugs may live up to a year under cool conditions and with no food.

Cimex lectularius L.

Learn what Bed Bugs look like, and how to detect if you have a Bed Bug Infestation.

Find out how Bed Bugs infiltrate your home and where they are attracted to.

Learn about Bed Bug bites. their feces and how they can impact your health.

Learn how Orkin handles Bed Bugs, homeopathic cures and the cost of Bed Bug extermination services.


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Bed Bug Life Cycle: Easy to understand growth chart

Post date: September 26th, 2017

Below youll see the bed bug life cycle which typically takes about 40 days when well fed. The growth cycle can take longer if the food source is limited. In the photo of the life cycle below, you can see the beginning stage starts with the egg (which looks like rice) and is approximately 1/4 mm in length.

The next stage is the first instar nympth, also about 1.5mm long and almost transparent until the first feeding. They are very difficult to see at this stage of development.

The third stage of the bed bugs life cycle is the second instar nymph at 2mm long. Third stage is 2.5mm, fourth is 3mm, fifth is 4.5mm and the final molting shows the bed bug reaching the final stages of the cycle.

And here is another picture of a bed bugs life cycle provided by Stephen Doggett at the Department of Medical Entomology, ICPMR in Australia; his bed bug fact sheet covers the lifecycle of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius:

The egg which looks like a grain of rice is about 1.5mm long and usually attached to a mattress tag or in the crease or fold of fabric (see our bed bug pictures for examples). The eggs is beige in color due to lack of blood and turns red as it starts to hatch, which takes around two weeks. From first instar nymph and into adulthood, the developing bedbug needs a good supply of blood before moving into the next stage.

An adult bed bug can produce eight eggs per time and as much as 500 eggs during her lifetime! Studies show that a adult male can live up to a year without blood at 50F and only a month at 80F concluding that when starved, they die faster in warmer temperatures.*Based on study by Mac Dubbed Gobs

Shown below is a bed bug at different stages of development (Egg, 5 nymphal stages, and 2 adult bed bugs). This entire image is the size of a penny (19mm) and gives you an idea of the size at each stage. This picture is from Dong-Hwan Choe, University of California Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program on bed bugs.


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How to get rid of Bed Bugs. – Fox Weekly

Post date: July 31st, 2017

For someone who has not dealt with the nuisance of a bedbug infestation on household furniture, the shudder of those who have might seem extreme. The visceral reaction to the smell of a squashed bed bug and the itch of being bitten is all too real for those who have had such experiences. The annoying aspect of a bedbug infestation is their resilience. These little bugs are hardy and even harder to kill.In a span of 37 days on the average, bedbugs go from eggs to adulthood. From the beginning of their life, bedbug nymphs are ready for a blood meal. Bedbugs survive by ingesting the blood of their host (bloody little vampires).

They can survive on the ingested blood for months without needing a refill (I wonder the kind of engine that powers them). And they dont discriminate humans, cats, dogs- all are fair game. What more, their life cycle is 10 months to a year (really uncommon for critters in the insect kingdom) but they are aggressively active when it comes to mating. The typical female bedbug can lay hundreds of eggs in her life span. Now imagine how hard it is to get rid of bugs that breed that fast irrespective of whether they starve or not.

Normal insecticides dont work well on bedbugs, partly due to where they like to hang out in the seams of the mattress, folds of furniture materials and clothing. Basically, all nook and crannies where there is a high probability of coming into contact with human skin, too tight for casual inspection and dark.However, we would not leave you hanging as to how to get rid of these nasty little buggers.

Our solution is a homemade brew that can percolate (while you sip your coffee) into their hideouts talk about taking the fight to them. The chemicals needed are things you already use in the kitchen and around the house, hence it is inexpensive.

You will need:

Then follow the following procedure. No need for goggles. There are no explosions involved.

Note: If you dont have a teacup or you need a larger/ smaller quantity then you can use any container for the measurement. The important bit is to use the same proportional measurement for all the components.Pour the resulting mixture into a spraying container (you have just taken your first step as an industrial chemist. Congrats!). Head over to the infested furniture and spray the edges and folds (higher chance of finding them there). Then spray the rest of the furniture. Repeat the spraying in two days or three days to be sure you got them all.


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Accra, July 7, GNA -Inesfly Africa Limited and Sahara Commodities have signed a distributionagreement for the latter to begin commercial distribution of the Inesfly rangeof products in the southwestern African nation, Namibia.

This was announcedin a joint communiqu issued by both partiesInesfly Africa and SaharaCommodities.

Sahara Commoditiesvisited Inesfly Africa headquartered in Ghana, for a training session relatingto technical and product knowledge and route-to-market strategies.

Expressing hisexcitement about the trade deal, CEO of Sahara Commodities, Mr. Shahil Morar,said they were glad to be part of the Inesfly family, noting that the licenseto distribute Inesflys range of insecticide products would not only empowerthe Namibian economy through job creation, but would address significantly thenegative impact of insect-pest infestation in the country.

Namibia, like anyother country, is not free from insect-pest infestation, and were veryoptimistic that Inesflys range of insecticide products will help address thenations quest in curbing vector-borne diseases, he added.

In March 2017, theNamibian High Commissioner to Ghana, Charles B. Josob, on the occasion ofGhanas 60th Independence Anniversary celebration, made a clarion call on Ghanaand Namibia to strengthen bilateral trade ties for the economic and sustainabledevelopment of the two nations.

Barely two monthsfollowing this call, Inesfly Africa and Sahara Commodities have taken firststeps in that direction and are poised to partner for mutual gains.

CEO at InesflyAfrica, Michael Sjodin, noted that the trade agreement with Sahara Commoditiesin Namibia is an important step towards enhancing business ties between the twonations, and, importantly, delivering on its commitment to fighting vectorinfestations in all of Africa.

Inesfly Africa as atotal insecticide solutions company has a vision of reducing and ultimatelyeradicating vector infestations in multi-sectors including Public Health,Agriculture, Hospitality and Veterinary Health across Africa. Already, we areactively present in Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Congo-Brazzaville,

DR Congo and CoteDIvoire, just to mention a few, and the goal is to be present in 25 Africancountries by close of 2017, he added.

Inesfly Africa dealsin a range of insecticide products for multi-sectors including public health,veterinary health, hospitality and agriculture.

Some of the productsare the Exterior and Interior insecticide Paint, Floor Cleaner, Bed Bug and EMHouse solution for treatment against all insects especially bed bugs.

Its flagshiptechnology, the microencapsulation technology, traps the insecticides intomicro bubbles which are then released slowly over an extended period of timethereby allowing for their long term efficacy while proving safe for humans andpets.

It also uses theInsect Growth Regulator, which allows for the insecticides to deal with thetotal life cycle of the insect including the egg, the larvae, the pupa and theadult. This prevents re-infestation and leads ultimately to eradication.

GNA


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Ghanaian company, Inesfly Africa Limited entered into a distribution agreement last week with Sahara Commodities to a to begin commercial distribution of the Inesfly range of products in Namibia.

Sahara Commodities visited Inesfly Africa headquartered in Ghana, for a training session relating to technical and product knowledge and route-to-market strategies.

CEO at Inesfly Africa, Michael Sjodin, noted that the trade agreement with Sahara Commodities in Namibia is an important step towards enhancing business ties between the two nations, and, importantly, delivering on its commitment to fighting vector infestations in all of Africa.

Sahara Commodities CEO, Shahil Morar, said they are glad to be part of the Inesfly family noting that the license to distribute Inesflys range of insecticide products will not only empower the Namibian economy through job creation, but also address the negative impact of insect-pest infestation in the country.

Inesfly Africa as a total insecticide solutions company has a vision of reducing and ultimately eradicating vector infestations in multi-sectors including Public Health, Agriculture, Hospitality and Veterinary Health across Africa.

We are already present in Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Congo-Brazzaville, DR Congo and Cote DIvoire, with the goal to be present in 25 African countries by close of 2017, Mortar explained.

Namibia, like any other country, is not free from insect-pest infestation, and were very optimistic that Inesflys range of insecticide products will help address the nations quest in curbing vector-borne diseases, Morar said.

The Namibian High Commissioner to Ghana, Charles Josob, on the occasion of Ghanas 60th Independence Anniversary celebration, made a clarion call for Ghana and Namibia to strengthen bilateral trade ties for the economic and sustainable development of the two nations in March 2017, just two months following this call, Inesfly Africa and Sahara Commodities have taken a step in that direction and are set to partner for common gain.

Some of the products include the exterior and interior insecticide paint, floor cleaner, bed bug and EM House solution for treatment against all insects especially bed bugs.

Its flagship technology, the microencapsulation technology, traps the insecticides into micro bubbles which are then released slowly over an extended period of time thereby allowing for their long term efficacy while proving safe for humans and pets.

It also uses the Insect Growth Regulator, which allows for the insecticides to deal with the total life cycle of the insect including the egg, the larvae, the pupa and the adult. This prevents re-infestation and leads ultimately to eradication.


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Inesfly Africa Limited and Sahara Commodities have signed a distribution agreement for the latter to begin commercial distribution of the Inesfly range of products in Namibia.

This was announced in a joint communiqu issued by both partiesInesfly Africa and Sahara Commodities. The latter visited Inesfly Africa headquartered in Ghana, for a training session relating to technical and product knowledge and route-to-market strategies.

Expressing his excitement about the trade deal, CEO of Sahara Commodities, Mr. Shahil Morar, said they are glad to be part of the Inesfly family noting that the license to distribute Inesflys range of insecticide products will not only empower the Namibian economy through job creation, but will address significantly the negative impact of insect-pest infestation in the country.

Namibia, like any other country, is not free from insect-pest infestation, and were very optimistic that Inesflys range of insecticide products will help address the nations quest in curbing vector-borne diseases, he added.

In March 2017, the Namibian High Commissioner to Ghana, Charles B. Josob, on the occasion of Ghanas 60th Independence Anniversary celebration, made a clarion call for Ghana and Namibia to strengthen bilateral trade ties for the economic and sustainable development of the two nations. Barely two months following this call, Inesfly Africa and Sahara Commodities have taken a step in that direction and are poised to partner for mutual gains.

CEO at Inesfly Africa, Michael Sjodin, noted that the trade agreement with Sahara Commodities in Namibia is an important step towards enhancing business ties between the two nations, and, importantly, delivering on its commitment to fighting vector infestations in all of Africa.

Inesfly Africa as a total insecticide solutions company has a vision of reducing and ultimately eradicating vector infestations in multi-sectors including Public Health, Agriculture, Hospitality and Veterinary Health across Africa. Already, we are actively present in Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Congo-Brazzaville, DR Congo and Cote DIvoire, just to mention a few, and the goal is to be present in 25 African countries by close of 2017, he added.

Inesfly Africa deals in a range of insecticide products for multi-sectors including public health, veterinary health, hospitality and agriculture. Some of the products are the Exterior and Interior insecticide Paint, Floor Cleaner, Bed Bug and EM House solution for treatment against all insects especially bed bugs. Its flagship technology, the microencapsulation technology, traps the insecticides into micro bubbles which are then released slowly over an extended period of time thereby allowing for their long term efficacy while proving safe for humans and pets. It also uses the Insect Growth Regulator, which allows for the insecticides to deal with the total life cycle of the insect including the egg, the larvae, the pupa and the adult. This prevents re-infestation and leads ultimately to eradication.


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Waking up several times during the night with itchy skin, Mr and Mrs E (whose names have been withheld) have not had a good nights sleep in almost a year. They have tried everything from tossing out their belongings including bedding replacing the wooden bed with a metal-framed one, and flea bombing their subdivided apartment numerous times. But they still cant get rid of their unwanted intruders, bed bugs.

Watch Hong Kong is Disneyland for bed bugs video

Theyre getting desperate, because Mrs E is pregnant and due to give birth any day. On a visit to their cramped apartment in Cheung Sha Wan with Francisco Pazos, head technician of pest control company nobedbugs-hk.com, Pazos lifts the blanket and immediately sees the small dark insects crawling on the bed. Many more appear as he moves the mattress.

Judging by the amount of droppings, Pazos estimates there are more than a million bed bugs in the apartment, and classifies the case as an extreme infestation. The neighbouring apartments are likely to be crawling in them, he says.

Bed bugs (Cimex hemipterus) feed on blood, are arguably the most irritating household pests, and are indiscriminate lodgers. They can be found in all types of homes, clean or dirty, big or small.

Pazos next takes us to a luxurious, 3,700 sq ft Mid-Levels flat. One of two domestic helpers suspects the critters hitchhiked to Hong Kong with her employer when he returned from a trip to the mainland. The parasites have since spread to all of the bedrooms.

Bed bug infestations are on the rise - and the pests are hard to kill

Hong Kong is on the verge of a major bed bug epidemic, Pazos warns. There are only two types of households in Hong Kong: those who have bed bugs and those who will have bed bugs.

The Spanish expert, who has dealt with the pests for more than 10 years, says the city is a Disneyland for bed bugs because the high population density and small, cluttered homes are perfect breeding conditions. Seams of mattresses, crevices in furniture and cracks between floorboards are all ideal hiding places for bed bugs.

Pazo says his team receives more than 500 phone enquiries a month. They visit some districts more frequently, such as Tung Chung and Ho Man Tin, but Pazos says this is not a reflection of how severe the problem is in these areas. Rather, middle-class families in these neighbourhoods are more likely to have the financial means to pay for treatment. The cost ranges from HK$1,500 to HK$18,000, depending on the type of treatment, size of the home and the level of infestation.

The resurgence of bed bugs is a worldwide problem. They were almost wiped out in the 1960s through use of the pesticide DDT. The pesticide was later found to have wide-ranging harmful effects, and was banned worldwide in 2001 under the Stockholm Convention. Since then, the critters have made a comeback.

We experienced a sudden reappearance around 2000, followed by rapid population growth, mirrored across most of Europe, the US, Canada and Australia, says Dr Richard Naylor, an entomologist from University of Sheffield, in northern England, who studies the bloodsuckers behaviour.

One theory about the spread of bed bugs in Hong Kong is that they are imported from the mainland, where migrant workers dormitories and trains have spread the pest rapidly across the country. Shenzhen has a large immigrant population and many factory dorms, where bed bug infestations are often reported. Considering its vicinity to Hong Kong, the risk of bed bugs spreading from Shenzhen to Hong Kong is high, says Dr Changlu Wang, an entomologist from Rutgers University in New Jersey.

New York, with a population density comparable to Hong Kongs, suffered a mass infestation in 2010, when bedbugs were reported in hotels, shops and cinemas. City authorities had received more than 8,000 complaints in 2008 alone.

Sleeping in McDonalds better than in a bug-infested bed at home, says Hong Kong McSleeper

Statistics on the number of homes affected are difficult to obtain because many sufferers are too embarrassed to report the problem. There is a stigma surrounding bed bugs. People believe that they are associated with dirty places, which isnt true. But because of this, people tend not to talk about the problem, Naylor says.

Some people may be aware of the problem because not everyone reacts to their bite.

Cheung (who didnt want her full name revealed) took her eight-year-old son to two doctors when he developed rashes on his skin. One doctor laughed off the suggestion the rash could have been caused by insect bites.

Our youngest son was being eaten alive and was misdiagnosed by two different doctors, who put him on antihistamines for several weeks, Cheung says. The drugs made him drowsy but his rashes just got worse. The cause was only discovered after another of Cheungs sons got rashes from bites, and they did some online research.

The easiest way to tell if you have a bed bug problem is by looking for droppings pin head sized black dots normally found on bedsheets, Pazos says. Another way is to blow hot air from a hairdryer into the corners of a wooden bed, which will flush them out. They are typically brown and flat, and up to 4.5mm long.

Bed bugs possess many qualities that make them hard to get rid of. Containing an infestation is notoriously difficult due to how quickly they grow and reproduce. An adult female bed bug can lay about 25 eggs a week. The life cycle from egg to adult takes about six weeks, which means if a single female bug finds its way into your bed, it can keep on laying fertile eggs, and by the time its ready to mate again, its own offspring will be reaching maturity, Naylor says.

This ability to inbreed means they can mutate, and produce stronger detoxifying enzymes that can break down insecticides. They can grow a thicker protective exterior that prevents insecticides from harming them.

Modern populations of bed bugs now have widespread resistance to every major class of insecticide, Naylor says. So its not surprising that people are struggling to control the insects using conventional insecticides.

Most of Pazos clients have already tried terminating bedbugs with flea bombs or by employing pest control companies, to no avail. [Flea bombing] is the worst thing you can do, Pazos says. They feel uncomfortable and will stop feeding for a night or two, but they will come back when they are hungry. It only makes them more difficult to kill because they hide deeper inside the walls.

Pazos has found another way of combating bed bugs that he says has been particularly effective. He uses an amorphous silicon gel powder, which he dusts on every surfaces of an infected apartment, and kills the insects by dehydrating them. It is completely harmless, he says. To prove his point, a colleague dips his finger in the powder and slips it in his mouth. (Not all types of silicon gel are non-toxic, Pazos stresses.)

Another, more expensive, method, is to raise the temperature of an apartment up to 60 degrees, which Pazos can do using special equipment. It is almost like a sauna, he says. Bedbugs die when the temperature reaches about 48 degrees, but Pazos maintains the heat for three hours so it penetrates walls, furniture and mattresses.

Pasoz shows how the heat treatment works, on a visit the cluttered flat of an elderly couple in Shau Kei Wan. It was one of the worst cases he had seen. When he first visited, the bed bugs, which are normally inactive in daylight, were crawling on the floor. The elderly man, who suffered the most, had thrown out the mattress and was sleeping on plastic sheets to prevent bites.

I wanted to cry seeing how my old man suffered, his wife says.

Its been five weeks since Pazos and his team first visited the flat. They have since done one heat treatment and applied the silicon dust three times. Like a detective on the hunt for evidence, Pazos lifts up the wooden bed panel and, bingo, he finds fresh bedbug droppings.

Despite rounds of chemical warfare and turning up the heat, Pazos job is not yet done.

Tips to deal with bed bugs


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Is Hong Kong on the verge of a major bed bug epidemic? We talk to the experts and get some tips - South China Morning Post
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Bed bug Cimex lectularius

Dublin, Ireland (PRWEB) April 21, 2017

National pest management association survey conducted in 2010 and more recently in 2015 shows the dramatic increase in the number of bed bug infestations over the 5-year period. In 2015 10% or US$750 million per annum of the total revenue from pest management companies was from the treatment of bed bug infested properties.

The health and economic consequences of bed bug infestations are only just starting to be realised.

People can experience various forms of allergic reactions including anaphylaxis, secondary bacterial infections.

The types of properties that are being infested are also on the rise with libraries, retail outlets and Doctors facilities being affected more since the 2010 NPMA survey. Methods for detecting bed bugs have not changed between 2010 and 2015, with visual inspection still the most used technique followed by passive traps. Unfortunately, all these methods rely on the need to see the bed bugs which is a problem if you have a small population that is intent on hiding deep in cracks and crevices in your furniture.

The increase in bed bug infestations are a growing health concern. Modern non-visual detection methods must be developed to assist property owners in discovering efficiently if their homes or businesses are affected said Dr. Bruce Mitchell, CEO of airmid helathgroup

airmid healthgroup offer a large array of bed bug testing options to investigate product protective mechanisms towards bed bugs. airmid have developed assays using artificial bed bug feeders to investigate if materials are bite proof to all developmental stages during the bed bug life cycle. airmid have also worked using both small and large scale barrier assays to ensure products prevent the escape of bed bugs once entrapped in a protective barrier case. More bespoke bed bug testing includes viability and repellency assays. These assays have a standard procedure which can be adapted based on the type of product that is being tested.

All testing can be adapted to test different manufacturer products such as looking at the difference between the product as a liquid vs embedded in the material.

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The life cycle of an insect describes the development of an insect from the egg stage to adult. The process is referred to as metamorphosis. Metamorphosis is the process that the insects undergo to change from egg to adult. During complete metamorphosis, the insect egg is laid and when the egg hatches, a larva emerges that has little resemblance to adults. After feeding for a period of time, the larva changes to a new appearance. This stage in development is called the pupal stage. During the pupal stage, the insect will rest for some time before completing the final stage in development. When the pupa develops into an adult and emerges, the final stage of metamorphosis is achieved.

Bed bugs evolve in a process called simple metamorphosis. This means that the juveniles have the appearance of adults and there is no resting or pupal stage. So the bed bug life cycle goes from egg to nymph, progressing through five nymphal stages, to adult, which then lays eggs and the process starts again.

Eggs take about a week to hatch. Bed bugs are most active when their living space is just under body temperature, so a room temperature that is about 80 Fahrenheit is hospitable. After hatching, the nymphal stages begin and if there is adequate food, temperature, and humidity of about 75%, bed bugs will thrive. They can produce several generations per year, so egg to egg can be timed in just a few months.

Female bed bugs can lay hundreds of eggs in her lifetime if there is an adequate population of males to ensure continuous egg production. Most eggs will hatch if conditions are right and newly hatched nymphs must feed soon after hatching.

While it is rare in normal populations, there are documented cases where bed bugs have been dormant and waiting for a host for over a year. Moreover, there have been rare cases where bed bugs have survived two years without feeding.


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