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How can you identifyChigger bites vs Bed bug bites?

Chiggers, (also called berry bugs) arent actually insects. Instead, they belong to the mite family, and they are closely related to spiders and ticks. However, their bites look similar to bed bugs.

Although they arent ticks, these larval mites are quite small and measure around 0.15mm to 0.25mm in length. They are reddish-orange to red in color and have six legs. The preferred habitat for chiggers is grassy areas and thick, scrub-type vegetation where there is undisturbed soil so that chiggers can easily latch onto the hosts that pass by.However, generally, chiggers are found in rural areas that are less disturbed, and they can persist for many years.

What do chiggers feed on?Similar to dust mites, chiggers feed on animals skin cells. The parasitic larva feeds on various creatures which also includes quail, box turtles, toads, rabbits, humans, along with a few insects too.Once they crawl on the hosts, they release digestive enzymes into the hosts skin which breaks down the skin cells. Instead of a bite, chiggers make a hole in the skin which is called a stylostome. Then, they chew small parts of the inner skin which leads to swelling and irritation.

How do chiggers reproduce?Adult male chiggers move around their habitat and leave behind tiny capsules of sperm which are called spermatophores. The adult female chiggers find the capsules and insert them into the genital pore.After around fourteen days of the egg fertilizing, the female then leaves the fertilized egg on the surface of the soil.

On the other hand, bed bugs are reddish brown in color, and they have a flat, oval shape. They measure around 4mm to 5mm in length and are around the size of an apple seed. Once they have a blood meal, bed bugs become reddish and swollen.

How does infestation take place? They are generally found in small crevices and cracks. They can also be found in furniture, sheets, and mattress seams. Other common hiding places also include behind picture frames, electrical outlet plates, and baseboards.The most common place that bed bugs can be found in is hotels as they can travel from one room to the other in the visitors luggage or personal belongings like briefcases and purses.

Where do bed bugs hide? As mentioned earlier, bed bugs can enter your house without being detected via used couches and beds, clothing, and luggage, among other items. Since they have a flat body, fitting into small places is possible for them. Bed bugs can even hide in places as thin as the width of a regular credit card.While bed bugs dont have nests like bees and ants do, they still tend to live in groups.

Initially, bed bugs hide in places like headboards, bed frames, box springs, mattresses, and other similar places from where they can have easy access for biting people in the night. However, with time, the bed bugs can scatter throughout the room and can move into other locations.They can also spread to nearby rooms and apartments. Since bed bugs survive only on blood, having bed bugs in your house doesnt mean say anything about your hygiene. The possibility of having bed bugs in clean, immaculate homes is the same as in dirty ones.

Bed bugs reproduction cycleFemale bed bugs can deposit one to five eggs in a single day. In their lifetime, females might lay, on average, around 200 to 500 eggs. With sufficient food supply and a regular room temperature, then they can survive for more than 300 days.

Preferred habitat for bed bugsAs apparent by the name, bed bugs prefer to live in warm beds. However, their habitats can also include car and bus seats, backpacks, couches, and clothes.

Distinguishing between bed bug bites and chigger bites can be a little tricky; however, there are some clues you can look for to figure out which of the two bit you.Often, bed bug bites and chigger bites look almost the same. Both of them produce small, reddened areas that are usually swollen. The area might also be raised slightly because of inflammation.

Both bites are also quite itchy which means that you cant judge the bite based on the itchiness level. You must make sure, however, that you dont pick at the bite; otherwise, it will get much worse.

One way you can identify the bite is to look for the bug. You will be able to see the bed bugs under the mattress and on your body. Chiggers are extremely small and you might not even be able to see them.

Since, more often than not, chiggers are brought in from the outside via legs there is a high chance that the bites on your legs are chigger bites. Chigger bites can also be on the groin, ankles, and feet.

On the other hand, bed bugs bite all of the extremities. Thus, it is better to note when the bites appeared first and where so that you have a better idea of the bug you are dealing with.The best way of identifying the bug is to look at the biting pattern. While bed bugs tend to bite in a straight line, chiggers bite randomly.

Symptoms: chigger bites vs bed bug bitesBoth chigger and bed bug bites bring along different symptoms and side effects.

The symptoms of chigger bites appear right after the enzyme is injected into the skin. Remember that a chigger bite itself is hardly noticeable. The most common symptoms include a flat or raised red colored bump on the skin or a skin bump that resembles a pimple or blister accompanied with itching that can be quite intense.

The primary symptom is itching, this is most intense after two days of being bitten. The itchiness can last for a number of days and the bitten area can take up to even 15 days to return to its normal appearance.

In the majority of the cases, the symptoms occur almost immediately after the chigger bites; however, they can start to progress or develop in the days following the bite. If there is no further irritation, then the symptoms usually go away after just a week.

There are also many cases where people dont feel the bite, or they dont experience any symptoms apart from the minuscule dots where the bug bit along with some minor irritation and inflammation.Meanwhile, a few people are hypersensitive to bites and can develop severe symptoms as well.Since a condition which is characterized by itching can cause extreme scratching, the person can experience disruption of the skin. As a result, there is a possibility of a secondary bacterial skin infection.

Almost all bed bug bites cause a degree of discomfort along with inflammation and itchiness. Other symptoms that bed bug bites lead to include a painful, burning sensation, an itchy, raised bump that has a clear center, or an itchy bump with a dark center but light surrounding areas that are often swollen.

Symptoms can also be small red welts or bumps in a line or a zigzag pattern, and small bumps surrounded by hives or blisters.

In some rare cases, some people experience severe symptoms or reactions after being bitten by a bed bug. These symptoms can include difficulty in breathing, an irregular heartbeat, swollen tongue, blisters, and nausea. Such individuals require immediate medical attention.

Both of the bites being discussed are to be treated differently and here is what you can do to reduce the swelling.

Bed Bug Remedies

There are only a handful of options when it comes to treating bed bug bites. However, the first step is to clean the bite, preferably using water and soap. If the bite is too itchy, then you must refer to antihistamines, anti-itch creams, and over-the-counter hydrocortisone.The affected area tends to heal on their own in just a week. However, if severe itchiness, inflammation, or swelling continues, then medical attention is definitely needed.

Preventing bed bug bites

The main way of preventing a bed bug bite is to stop the insect from entering, breeding, and feeding in the human environment. During the day, the bugs stay in the cracks in the mattresses, walls, flooring, and furniture. They can also be in vacuum canisters.Areas where infestations most commonly occur include condominium buildings, hotels, large offices, daycares, cruise ships, hospitals, vacation rentals, public transportation, shopping malls, second-hand stores, and college dorms.

Items that bring bed bugs into your house include used furniture, luggage, bedding, storage boxes, loungers placed in common areas, and shipped items.To prevent bed bug bites, you must reduce the number of hiding places and try out integrated pest management techniques. Wash and heat-dry the bedspreads, bed sheets, blankets, as well as other clothes that come in contact with the floor. Using a mattress encasement cover isolates bed bugs from you.Another great idea is to hire professional services and get an efficient pesticide sprayed in your house once a year. If this sound like an expensive option, this can be done by yourself using a bed bug spray.

For chigger bites

Similar to spider bites, first, take a shower and thoroughly scrub the skin with water and soap. This way, any chiggers that are still stuck to your body will be washed off. Then, with hot water, wash your clothes along with any towel or blankets that were in contact with the ground so that all the bugs hanging on are killed.

Next, treat the bites using an over-the-counter anti-itch ointment or cream such as hydrocortisone, calamine lotion, and menthol. For quick relief, you can also use a cold compress or antihistamine pills.Chigger bites can get better with time; however, if the bite still bothers you after some days, then you must see the doctor.

In some cases, you might need steroid shots to calm the swelling and itching. In case the bites become infected, then you might have to take antibiotics as well.

Preventing chigger bites

While spending time in grassy areas, you must either use an insect repellent with DEET or wear such clothing that has been treated with insecticides like permethrin. While spraying the insecticide, focus more on those areas where the chiggers may travel from the clothing to the skin such as necklines and cuffs.Natural sprays can also help to keep chiggers away. Try out those that include oils made from lemongrass, geranium, jojoba, tea tree, and citronella. Wear long pants and long sleeves with the pant legs safely tucked in the long socks so that you are not an easy target.

While its difficult to distinguish a chigger bite from a bed bug bite, there are some signs (mentioned above) that can help you figure it out, if inspected closely.

While both bites appear the same, the differences lie in the biting pattern and the symptoms one experiences after the bite.Make sure you take all the necessary measures to stay protected from both Bed bugs and Chiggers!


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Bed Bug Bites, Rashes & Symptoms

Post date: October 6th, 2017

Bed bugs feed on blood as their only source of nutrition. In order to mature into adults, they must feed once during each of their immature stages. Adult females also need blood in order to produce eggs. Although bedbugs do bite humans, they are not known to transmit diseases to people.

How to Identify the BitesBlood spots found on ones sheets, bites and the presence of bed bug feces and cast skins are some of the indications of a bed bug infestation. Bites are commonly found on the parts of the body that are more likely to be exposed to bed bugs during sleep the hands, neck, face, shoulders, legs and arms. While not always the case, bed bug bites are often grouped together in a small area and at times may occur in a line or a zigzag pattern. Bites normally look like small, flat or raised areas that may become inflamed, itchy, red or blistered. Bed bug bite reactions dont always appear immediately after youre bitten and may take a few days to begin causing symptoms. However, not everyone reacts to bed bug bites in the same manner.

The size of bed bug bites varies with a number of different factors. Bed bugs inject an anti-coagulant along with their saliva when they pierce the skin to take a blood meal. This anti-coagulant is mostly responsible for how a person reacts to the bite and determines the size of the bugs bite. Since people will have various sensitivities to the bed bugs bite, the size of the bite will vary, as well. Another factor that influences the size of a bed bug reaction is the number of times a person is bitten. Bite reactions of people bitten many times are also variable, and their response may be either more or less intense as the number of bites increases.

Bed bugs pierce human skin with elongated beaks through which they extract blood. Bed bug bites are not initially painful and can go unnoticed for hours or days. This allows bed bugs to withdraw human blood for up to 10 minutes with each feeding. Bed bug bites occur most commonly on exposed skin, such as the upper body, neck, arms and shoulders.

Bite SymptomsSome individuals who are bitten by bed bugs develop itching, red welts or swelling the day after being bitten. However, bites may not become obvious for several days or at allon some individuals. Many people do not react at all to the bite of a bed bugmany bites leave no mark and go completely unnoticed.

Unlike those of other insects, bed bug bites may sometimesappear in tight lines of multiple, small, red marks where multiple bed bugs have fed along an exposed area. Bed bug bites can cause itchiness. Initially, a victim may detect a slight burning sensation. The burning area then develops red bumps, known as papules or wheals (rash). In extreme cases, bites may swell dramatically or turn into blister-like skin inflammations.

If you develop a rash after being bitten by a bed bug, avoid scratching the affected area. If the rash persists or becomes infected, contact a medical professional immediately.

Why Do They Bite?Bed bugs are blood feeders that depend on blood for their food source, so they must consume blood for survival.

One bed bug will usually take more than one bite. Once a bed bug inserts its mouthparts and finds a suitable blood vessel, it will begin feeding. However, finding the right blood vessel may take more than one injection into the skin. In addition, bed bugs are very sensitive to movement by the host they are feeding on. Therefore, if a sleeping person moves, a feeding bed bug will probably withdraw its mouthparts and begin its search for a blood meal on another part of the body. Its important to remember that the number of bites a person receives is not indicative of the number of bed bugs that feed on that person.

Risks Associated With InfectionsScratching bed bug bites and failure to keep the bites clean and disinfected may lead to a secondary infection that can cause further swelling and bleeding. Children, the elderly, and individuals with weak immune systems, particularly those who are bedridden, may develop secondary infections that result from bed bug bites.

How To Identify Bites On PetsBites on dogs and cats will look much like bites on people, and the pet owner may actually suspect a mosquito or flea bit the pet. As with people, bed bugs do not stay on pets, but return to a protected harborage site after feeding. In addition to bites, the presence of the bugs feces, cast skins and the animals irritation at night are also indicators of bed bugs biting pets. Therefore, one of the best things to do is inspect the pets bedding and frequently groom the animal while being vigilant for the telltale signs of bed bug presence.

Cimex lectularius L.

How to identify Bed Bugs?

Learn what Bed Bugs look like, and how to detect if you have a Bed Bug Infestation.

Find out how Bed Bugs infiltrate your home and where they are attracted to.

Learn about Bed Bug bites. their feces and how they can impact your health.

Learn how Orkin handles Bed Bugs, homeopathic cures and the cost of Bed Bug extermination services.


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HOUSTON Five Harris County residents have filed suit against a Houston residential complex alleging they suffered damages from a bed bug infestation.

Named as plaintiffs in the case are Lady Guerrero, Zarion Harris and four minors and they are represented by the Rice Firm of The Woodlands. Listed as defendants in the case are JK 1000 Country Place LLC, The Park at Country Place and Excel Residential Services. The suit was filed May 19 in the Harris County District Court.

According to the complaint, the plaintiffs moved into an apartment owned by the defendants in July 2015. The plaintiffs claim that there was no disclosure of bed bugs and if it had been disclosed there was an infestation, they would have not rented the property.

The complaint said that "not long after moving in, plaintiffs began to notice red, irritated bites on their bodies not realizing they were bed bug bites. Immediately after seeing the bedbugs, plaintiffs reported a bed bug infestation to leasing office."

The suit states the leasing office sent someone to do an inspection, who confirmed the confirmed the presence of bed bugs in the apartment and told plaintiffs the infestation had been in apartment for a while.

"Defendants fraudulently and intentionally concealed the fact their property had a prior bedbug problem from plaintiffs in order to fraudulently induce plaintiffs to rent the property," the complaint said.

The plaintiffs claim because of the bed bug infestation it caused them to suffer personal injuries and property damages. The plaintiffs also say they have incurred cleaning, extermination, attorney fees and other costs.

The plaintiffs claim they are suffering or will continue to suffer past and future medical, pharmaceutical and hospital expenses, past and future pain and suffering, past and future mental anguish, past and future mental anguish, past and future physical impairment, lost wages, property damage, exemplary damages, plus court costs.

The complaint also claims that the defendants have had prior bed bug infestation problems and despite this knowledge, defendants have failed to take reasonable steps to prevent further infestations.

According to Wikipedia, bed bugs are parasitic insects that feed exclusively blood and preferably human blood. Most bed bugs are active at night and they feed without being noticed. Health effects include allergic symptoms, psychological effects and most notably skin rashes.


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The Sun

Why do people sleepwalk, what causes somnambulism, how can you stop it and how common is it?
The Sun
The bed bug is more common than you may think - but is there a cure? By Sophie Roberts. 5th July 2017, 9:20 am. Updated: 5th July 2017, ... Getty Images. 3. Typically, sleepwalking affects children. Symptoms tend to disappear once they have hit puberty.


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By Fernando Ramirez, Chron.com / Houston Chronicle

A Houston couple are claiming their house became infested with bed bugs after the pests allegedly hitched a ride with them from an AMC movie theater.

Anthony VanDuyn said he and his wife attended a Friday showing of "All Eyez on Me" at the AMC Studio 30 on Dunvale when he began to feel itchy.

"I'm sitting there scratching my arms,"VanDuyn said. "My wife thought it was an allergic reaction. I've been through bed bugs more than once. We got up, walked out."

TIPS AND TRICKS:A Traveler's Guide to Avoiding Bed Bugs' Bite

VanDuyn said right as he got to AMC's customer help desk, a bed bug fell off of him and onto the floor.

Click through to see a list of pests that can be found in the Lone Star State.

Click through to see

Wasps help pollinate but most people still don't like them. Safely removing nests from homes usually gets rid them. Unlike bees, wasps are able to sting multiple times, leaving painful swelling and burning in their wake.

Wasps help pollinate but most people still don't like them. Safely removing nests from homes usually gets rid them. Unlike bees, wasps are able to sting multiple times, leaving painful swelling and burning

Most people recognize scorpions by their long tail, which is used to sting. Most scorpions' stings are not fatal. However, in the most extreme cases an individual can experience numbness and convulsions. People who are allergic and have severe reactions should seek immediate medical attention.

Most people recognize scorpions by their long tail, which is used to sting. Most scorpions' stings are not fatal. However, in the most extreme cases an individual can experience numbness and

There are many species of ticks, not all transfer diseases. Ticks can be found outside, in and around dense woods. They can also be found on family pets inside the home. Like most other bug infestations, consult a licensed exterminator to get rid of ticks.

There are many species of ticks, not all transfer diseases. Ticks can be found outside, in and around dense woods. They can also be found on family pets inside the home. Like most other bug

These multi-leg critters are usually found outside in moist, covered areas. To keep them on the outside use insecticides. When in the home, these pests feed on other small insects, so eliminating their food is best step to get rid of them.

These multi-leg critters are usually found outside in moist, covered areas. To keep them on the outside use insecticides. When in the home, these pests feed on other small

Spiders are everywhere. There seems to be no escape. Call an exterminator to get rid of them, even if it's temporary. Grass spiders are some of the most common spiders across the state. Others include the black and yellow garden spiders, the southern black widow and the brown recluse.

Spiders are everywhere. There seems to be no escape. Call an exterminator to get rid of them, even if it's temporary. Grass spiders are some of the most common spiders across the state. Others include

This bug can be found inside homes. They feed on clothing, papers and wallpaper. Silverfish tend thrive in humid areas. Once there's an infestation it's best to call an exterminator. Silverfish are not known to bite people and do not carry diseases.

This bug can be found inside homes. They feed on clothing, papers and wallpaper. Silverfish tend thrive in humid areas. Once there's an infestation it's best to call an exterminator. Silverfish are

This critter can be found in gardens. Insecticides usually keep them at bay. Normally leaf footed bugs do not invade in homes in large numbers. They do not bite humans.

This critter can be found in gardens. Insecticides usually keep them at bay. Normally leaf footed bugs do not invade in homes in large numbers. They do not bite humans.

This pest outlasted the dinosaurs but exterminators say a few visits from a professional might do the trick. Cockroaches vary in size and carry different diseases because they're usually found near waste.

This pest outlasted the dinosaurs but exterminators say a few visits from a professional might do the trick. Cockroaches vary in size and carry different diseases because they're usually found near

Bed bugs can be found anywhere people spend a lot of time. Houses, apartments, public transportation and hotels are common places they can be found. To get rid of bed bugs call alicensed pest control operator. Bed bugs are one of the most difficult pests to get eliminate.

Bed bugs can be found anywhere people spend a lot of time. Houses, apartments, public transportation and hotels are common places they can be found. To get rid of bed bugs call alicensed pest

Houston couple claim they were bitten by bed bugs while watching movie at Dunvale AMC

"I kindly warned the guy in front of us and he stepped on it," VanDuyn said, noting that he had managed to take a video of the bug, seen above. "Long story short, the manager took our claim and even had us sign a piece of paper. We had to strip our clothes, my wife had to throw away her purse and my phone case for my new iPhone."

In a statement to Chron.com, AMC said it was "made aware of the report" and "brought in a third-party pest control expert to conduct an inspection, which found zero evidence of bed bugs at AMC Studio 30."

"This is an issue AMC takes very seriously," continued the statement. "Any guest report results in a third-party inspection of the suspected area, and, if evidence is found, it undergoes immediate treatment."

STUDY: Houston is among the most bed bug-infested spots in the nation

VanDuyn said the last time he dealt with bed bugs was over a year ago, and now the same symptoms have begun to occur in his household.

"My hands and arms are getting it the worst," VanDuyn said. "I called an exterminator, he was just out here yesterday and found nothing, but said he would keep following up."

"I hope one way or another something can happen," VanDuyn said. "Me and my wife are sitting here with this at home now. We're just sitting here playing the waiting game."

Click through to see a list of pests that can be found in the Lone Star State.


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Despite their role in an adorable bedtime proverb, bed bugs are pesky little pests. They sneak into your bed, your furniture, even your carpet, and while you sleep or watch TV, they bite you. The next morning, youre left wondering why youre red and itchy. On the following slides, we share symptoms of the bites and where the bugs hide.

We pick these items based on the quality of the products, and list the pros and cons of each to help you determine which will work best for you. We partner with some of the companies that sell these products, which means Healthline may receive a portion of the revenues when you buy something using the links below.


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Bed Bug Symptoms – | Pestnet

Post date: April 28th, 2017

Bed Bug Symptoms

It may be hard to tell if you have bed bug bites or bites from another insect. Being aware of bed bug symptoms is the first place to start when diagnosing a bed bug problem. In general, bed bug bites will be red and generally have a darker red spot in the center. Bed bug bites can cause a very irritating itch. They will often form into a rash, made up of many small or raised bumps. These bumps will often appear in a line or as a cluster of dotsthis is because bed bugs tend to feed multiple times at the same location. Bed bug bites are also usually found on exposed parts of the body like the arms, legs, hands, neck and face.

Some of the first symptoms of bed bugs are blood spots on the bed, sheets and pillow case. Another telltale bed bug symptom is small black dots on sheets that resemble black pepper. This is bed bug poop. While they know how to hide, bed bugs may be seen moving about on the bed and other furniture between about 2 to 4 a.m. They may not be obvious to the eye at first, but you can spot the bed bugs through inspection. Bed bugs are flat are resemble a small dark apple seed.

Another bed bugs symptom may be that sleeping partners have completely different reactions to the bed bug bites. For example, one sleeping partner may have no reaction at all while the other may have an allergic reaction including hives, blisters or severe itching.

A doctor should be seen if you have had an allergic reaction or intense skin reaction to bed bug bites. Bed bug extermination is needed to eradicate a bed bug infestation (bed bugs will not leave on their own accord!)


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April 5, 2017

One of the most hotly contested debates today involves the recent uptick in violent crime and the extent to which increases in violence may be explained by the "Ferguson effect," whereby the increased scrutiny of police since the 2014 Ferguson unrest has been hypothesized to lead police officers to become more hesitant and less aggressive. Chicago is an epicenter for much of this controversy, and on numerous occasions President Trump has threatened to "send in the feds."

In an article published today in Significance, the official magazine and website of the Royal Statistical Society (RSS) and the American Statistical Association (ASA), Arizona State University professors Sherry Towers and Michael D. White examine violence in Chicago and test whether the trends are consistent with the "Ferguson effect." They also test a competing claim proposed by Former NYPD Commissioner William Bratton that much of the recent violence in Chicago is tied to the proliferation of guns in that city.

Towers and White found no evidence of a Ferguson effect in Chicago.

"Murders and gun assaults in Chicago began increasing before Michael Brown's death in Ferguson," says Towers, a research professor in the Simon A. Levin Mathematical and Computational Modeling Sciences Center at Arizona State University in Tempe.

They did find a strong association between firearms availability and gun violence in Chicago, supporting Commissioner Bratton's argument.

"Our analysis highlights the importance of including measures of firearms proliferation when studying trends in violence in Chicago and elsewhere," says White, a policing expert and professor in the ASU School of Criminology and Criminal Justice in Phoenix.

Explore further: Police view blacks as 'suspects first, civilians second'

More information: Sherry Towers et al. The "Ferguson effect", or too many guns?, Significance (2017). DOI: 10.1111/j.1740-9713.2017.01018.x

Most of the Ferguson protestors believed police view black people as worthless thugs and white people as innocent and superior - perceptions that, true or not, affect police-community relations in an era of persistent racial ...

Even before President Donald Trump tweeted a threat to send "in the Feds" to curb Chicago's gun violence, he was saying on the campaign trail that there was a simple solution to the bloodshed: police should get tougher. Chicago ...

Hiring more black police officers is not a viable strategy for reducing police-involved homicides of black citizens in most cities, according to new Indiana University research that is the first in-depth study of this increasingly ...

Do violent video games such as 'Mortal Kombat,' 'Halo' and 'Grand Theft Auto' trigger teenagers with symptoms of depression or attention deficit disorder to become aggressive bullies or delinquents? No, according to Christopher ...

Recent negative publicity surrounding police after several shootings of unarmed civilians appears to have diminished some officers' motivation to be in law enforcement but does not decrease willingness to carry out their ...

It's hard to go a day without seeing news of violence in some form occurring in schools around the country, and Chicago is often cited as a city where crime rates in schools are particularly high. In a new study in the current ...

Oxford University researchers have tracked how recent aircraft incidents or accidents trigger past events and how some are consistently more memorable than others. Using the English version of Wikipedia, they analysed articles ...

A classicist, biologist and computer scientist all walk into a roomwhat comes next isn't the punchline but a new method to analyze relationships among ancient Latin and Greek texts, developed in part by researchers from ...

Approximately 13,500 years after nomadic Clovis hunters crossed the frozen land bridge from Asia to North America, researchers are still asking questions and putting together clues as to how they not only survived in a new ...

A study of the DNA in ancient skeletal remains adds to the evidence that indigenous groups living today in southern Alaska and the western coast of British Columbia are descendants of the first humans to make their home in ...

A cave in southern Oregon that is the site of some the oldest preserved evidence of human activity in North America was also once home to not-too-distant cousins of the common bed bug.

Two monkeys grooming each other about 20-30 million years ago may have helped produce a remarkable new find - the first fossilized red blood cells from a mammal, preserved so perfectly in amber that they appear to have been ...

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Now in the movies the good guys shoot them in the face.

That is the new message we send youth today.

This article provides no data whatsoever, and very little info regarding the assumptions, data quality, and rejection criteria. The referenced article is pay-walled. What a waste.

Gotta give you a 5 on that one, @Shake. At least if we can't see the article, let's try to get a little more of the hard data on these, shall we? I think this should be sent as feedback to the editors. There's a button for that up there.

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A report out of Australia demonstrates for the first time that bed bugs can induce a potentially dangerous (and possibly even deadly) systemic reaction in individuals repeatedly exposed to them.

Editors note: This article is based on an Oct. 26, 2016, paper in Austral Entomology (Australian Entomological Society) titled Systemic and erythrodermic reactions following repeated exposure to bites from the Common bed bug Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). The paper can be found here. The following information is reprinted in PCT with permission of Stephen Doggett, Department of Medical Entomology, Pathology West Westmead Hospital, Westmead, Australia.

As always, pest management professionals should never offer medical advice to their clients. This article is provided for informational purposes only.

Bed bugs (Cimex spp.) readily bite humans, producing a range of cutaneous reactions. This article documents systemic reactions in two patients following repeated bites from the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius. Both patients had previously fed bed bugs on themselves without any serious complication, however, upon feeding a new batch of the insects, they subsequently developed systemic urticarial reactions. Both were admitted to an emergency department for treatment and subsequently made a full recovery.

Patient 1 fed 40 to 50 bed bugs on himself and after eight minutes, he developed itch, swelling of the face, lethargy, profuse sweating and widespread wheals on the torso and limbs. The reaction disappeared in five hours after treatment with systemic prednisone and antihistamines. Patient 2 developed a similar reaction after feeding five to six bed bugs on himself. In this case, the patient also developed chest tightness and breathing difficulties. Following a similar treatment, symptoms disappeared in four hours.

In light of the increasing exposure of this insect to the general public, systemic reactions in patients may present more commonly to the medical practitioner. This report demonstrates how bed bugs can be a serious threat to the health of the community. If people are constantly exposed to bed bug bites (especially in low-income housing), then the effects can be extremely harmful to the individual.

DISCUSSION. There are a limited number of published cases of systemic reactions to bed bugs and symptomology has been ill defined. Consequently, these reactions can create a diagnostic dilemma for health-care professionals. A diverse number of dermatological differential diagnoses exist. Multiple bed bug bites are typically characterized by a cluster or linear distribution of erythematous macular lesions and can progress to wheals and widespread urticarial (Doggett & Russell 2009).

Although rare, systemic reactions can involve widespread pruritis, asthma, anaphylaxis and fever (Doggett et al. 2012). There is increasing evidence to support sensitization after initial exposure to bed bugs with the latency period between bed bug bite and cutaneous reaction decreasing substantially between subsequent bites (Reinhardt et al. 2009).

In the case of the 28-year-old male, he had been exposed to bed bug bites since November 2012 and has developed progressively more severe cutaneous reactions from each subsequent bite.

CONCLUSION. Physical impacts of bed bug bites are of growing concern, and there has been a surge of legal disputes throughout the western world recently. State and local governments have been overwhelmed with complaints by residents in regards to bed bug infestations, which are at times resistant to pest control measures (Aultman 2013). Bed bug infestations have become a particular problem among the socially disadvantaged, where infestations often go untreated, leading to massive bed bug populations and ongoing bites. Therefore, patients with systemic reactions may increasingly present to medical practitioners.

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