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Pictures Of Adult Bed Bugs – Bed Bug Guide

Post date: November 23rd, 2016

If you want to make sure the bugs you found are truly the menacing bed bugs or are just interested in pictures of bed bugs, this page will be of great help to you. And after youve identified bed bugs you can look around our site to see how you can get rid of bed bugs.

Without further ado, here are high quality pictures of bed bugs that will familiarize you with this pest and possibly even make you squint a little bit:

Female of the bed bug Cimex lectularius on the fur of one of its hosts, a bat.

SayByeBugs is a natural enzyme based formula and completely deadly to bed bugs in all stages of their life cycle. SayByeBugs doesnt use any toxins and is water based which means you can safely apply it to all surfaces and fabrics.

This little spray has been a secret weapon in the hands of select testers for the past year but now finally you too can use it to destroy your bed bug infestation. The formula in the spray has even been University tested and proven to destroy bed bugs on contact while being perfectly safe for your family and pets so unlike most other products it has science backing it up.

The way it works is you spray a light mist on any surfaces bed bugs might be hiding on and it will do the rest by disturbing the mating cycle of a bed bug and making it impossible for them to reproduce while also destroying them in seconds.

To try it out claim your 50% discounted kit by clicking here. Were not sure for how much longer the promotion is going to stay active, so hurry!

But if you are really want to get rid of bed bugs today there is only one thing that has been proven to work instantly. It's a bed bug extermination spray that kills on contact, just spray the desired areas and it will exterminate all bed bugs within 30 seconds. Get a completely natural 100% effective bed bug extermination spray called SayByeBugs.


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Bed bug control service in bangalore | Helpr

Post date: November 21st, 2016

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Bed bug control service in bangalore | Helpr

Bed bug control service in bangalore: Bedbugs are parasitic insects of the cimicid family that feed exclusively on blood. Cimex lectularius, the common bed bug, is the best known as it prefers to feed on human blood. Other Cimex species focus on other animals, e.g., bat bugs such as Cimex p...

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Bed bug control techniques – Wikipedia

Post date: November 20th, 2016

Bed bugs, or cimicidae, are small parasitic insects. The term usually refers to species that prefer to feed on human blood.

Early detection and treatment are critical to successful control. According to a survey, the most commonly infested places are the mattress (98.2%), boxspring (93.6%), as well as nearby carpets and baseboards (94.1%).[1] In fact, bed bugs thrive in areas where there is an adequate supply of available hosts, and plenty of cracks and harborages within 1.5 metres (4.9ft) of the host.[2]

Because treatments are required in sleeping areas and other sensitive locations, methods other than chemical pesticides are in demand. Treatments can be costly, laborious, time consuming, repetitive, may entail health risks, and cause embarrassment to the person affected.

Bed bug infestations spread easily in connecting units and have negative effects on psychological well-being and housing markets. In response, many areas have specific laws about responsibilities upon discovering a bed bug infestation, particularly in hotels and multi-family housing units, because an unprofessional level of response can have the effect of prolonging the invisible part of the infestation and spreading it to nearby units.

Common laws include responsibilities such as the following: Lessors must educate all lessees about bedbugs, lessee must immediately notify lessor in writing upon discovery of infestation, lessor must not intentionally lease infested unit, lessee must not intentionally introduce infested items, lessor must eradicate the infestation immediately every time it occurs at a professional level including all connecting units, and lessee must cooperate in the eradication process.[citation needed]

In a 2015 survey, reports of bed bug infestation in social media lowered the value of a hotel room to $38 for business travelers and $23 for leisure travelers.[3]

Mapped bed bug reports graphically illustrate how difficult it can be to eliminate bed bugs in densely populated areas where many people live in adjacent units like in New York City, Los Angeles, and San Francisco.[4]

Though commonly used, the pesticide approach often requires multiple visits and may not always be effective due to pesticide resistance and dispersal of the bed bugs. According to a 2005 survey, only 6.1% of companies claim to be able to eliminate bed bugs in a single visit, while 62.6% claim to be able to control a problem in 23 visits.[1] Insecticide application may cause dispersal of bed bugs to neighbouring areas of a structure, spreading the infestation.[1]

Furthermore, the problem of insecticide resistance in bed bug populations increases their opportunity to spread. Studies of bed bug populations across the United States indicate that resistance to pyrethroid insecticides, which are used in the majority of bed bugs cases, is widespread.[1][5]Exterminators often require individuals to dispose of furniture and other infested materials. It is advisable to break or mark these infested items to prevent their being unintentionally recycled and furthering the spread of bed bugs.

The well-established resistance of bed bugs to DDT and pyrethroids has created a need for different and newer chemical approaches to the extermination of bed bugs. In 2008 a study was conducted on bed bug resistance to a variety of both old and new insecticides, with the following results, listed in order from most- to least-effective: -cyhalothrin, bifenthrin, carbaryl, imidacloprid, fipronil, permethrin, diazinon, spinosyn, dichlorvos, chlorfenapyr, and DDT.[6] Note that the first of these, -cyhalothrin, is itself a pyrethroid-based insecticide in the past it has been used principally for the treatment of cotton crops and so bed bugs have not developed a genetic resistance to it.

The German Federal Institut for Consumer Health Protection and Veterinary Medicine approved the following three agents for the treatment of bedbugs in 2000:

Up until the 90ies chlorpyrifos was used as an agent with longterm effect, but the EC biocide declaration 98/8 prohibited the use from August 2008 onward.[8]

Some manufacturers also offer fumigants containing sulfuryl fluoride.[9]

Non-residue methods of treatment such as steaming and vacuuming are preferable to the contamination of mattresses, pillows and bed covers with insecticides. The possible health effects of pesticides on people and pets ranging from allergic reactions to cancer have to be considered,[10] and acute neurotoxicity.[11][12][13] as well as the dispersal of bed bugs to neighbouring dwellings due to repellent effects of insecticides.

Bedbugs prefer to hide in and around the bed frame but it can still be a good idea to put a tight cotton cover on mattress and bedding to prevent access.

Bed bugs are developing resistance to various pesticides including DDT and organophosphates.[14][15] Some populations have developed a resistance to pyrethroid insecticides. Although now often ineffective, the resistance to pyrethroid allows for new chemicals that work in different ways to be investigated, so chemical management can continue to be one part in the resolving of bed bug infestations.[16] There is growing interest in both synthetic pyrethroid and the pyrrole insecticide, chlorfenapyr. Insect growth regulators, such as hydroprene (Gentrol), are also sometimes used.[17]

Populations in Arkansas have been found to be highly resistant to DDT, with an LD50 of more than 100,000 ppm.[18] DDT was seen to make bed bugs more active in studies conducted in Africa.[19]

Bed bug pesticide-resistance appears to be increasing dramatically. Bed bug populations sampled across the U.S. showed a tolerance for pyrethroids several thousand times greater than laboratory bed bugs.[20] New York City bed bugs have been found to be 264 times more resistant to deltamethrin than Florida bed bugs due to mutations and evolution.[21] Products developed in the mid 2010s combine neonicotinoids with pyrethroids, but according to a January 2016 survey published by the Journal of Medical Entomology, bed bug resistance in two major US cities now includes neonicotinoids.[22]

A population genetics study of bed bugs in the United States, Canada, and Australia using a mitochondrial DNA marker found high levels of genetic variation.[23] This suggests the studied bed bug populations did not undergo a genetic bottleneck as one would expect from insecticide control during the 1940s and 1950s, but instead, that populations may have been maintained on other hosts such as birds and bats. In contrast to the high amount of genetic variation observed with the mitochondrial DNA marker, no genetic variation in a nuclear RNA marker was observed. This suggests increased gene flow of previously isolated bed bug populations, and given the absence of barriers to gene flow, the spread of insecticide resistance may be rapid.

Isolation of humans is attempted with numerous devices and methods including zippered bed bug-proof mattress covers, bed-leg moat devices, and other barriers. However, even with isolated beds, bed bug infestations persist if the bed itself is not free of bed bugs, or if it is re-infested, which could happen quite easily.[24]

It is convenient to place medium-sized belongings in sealed transparent plastic bags (such as plastic bags for freezing; larger models exist as well). Once closed, the tightness should be verified by pressing the bag and ensuring that air doesn't exit. It is as well convenient to mark these sealed bags as 'contaminated'/'decontaminated'.

Inorganic materials such as diatomaceous earth or silica gel may be used in conjunction with other methods to manage a bed bug infestation, provided they are used in a dry environment. Upon contact with such dust-like materials, the waxy outer layer of the insect's exoskeleton is disrupted, which causes them to dehydrate.[25]

Food-grade diatomaceous earth has been widely used to combat infestations. However, it can take weeks to have a significant effect. Studies examined and compared diatomaceous earth and synthetically produced, pure amorphous (i.e. non-crystalline) silica, so-called silica gel. They investigated the use of these substances as a stand-alone treatment in real-life scenarios, and compared them to usual poisonous agents. They found that the effect of diatomaceous earth was surprisingly low when used in real-life scenarios, while the synthetic product was extremely effective and fast in killing bed bugs in such settings.[26][27]

Silica gel was also more effective than usual poisonous pesticides (particularly in cases with pesticide resistant bugs). When applied after being mixed with water and then sprayed, the outcome for silica gel was significantly lower, but still distinctly better than for the natural silica (used dry). Authors argued that the reason for the poor outcome for diatomaceous earth as a stand-alone treatment was multi-factorial. When tested in laboratory where the bed bugs had intensive, prolonged contact with diatomaceous earth and no access to a host, diatomaceous earth performed very well. Silica gel, on the other side, performed in vitro consistently well even if applied to bed bugs in extremely low doses and with very slight and short (often only seconds or few minutes) contact to the substance.[26][27]

Although occasionally applied as a safe indoor pesticide treatment for other insects, boric acid is ineffectual against bed bugs because bed bugs do not groom.[28]

A traditional Balkan method of trapping bed bugs is to spread bean leaves in infested areas. The trichomes (microscopic hooked hairs) on the leaves trap the bugs by piercing the tarsi joints of the bed bug's arthropod legs. As a bug struggles to get free, it impales itself further on the bean leaf's trichomes. The bed bugs and leaves then can be collected and destroyed.[29][30][31] Researchers are examining ways to reproduce this capability with artificial materials.[29][31]

Many claims have been made about essential oils killing bed bugs. However, they are unproven. The FTC is now filing a suit against companies making these claims about these oils, specifically about cedar, cinnamon, lemongrass, peppermint, and clove oils.[32]

Disposal of items from the contaminated area can reduce the population of bed bugs and unhatched eggs. Removal of items such as mattresses, box springs, couches etc. is costly and usually insufficient to eradicate infestation because of eggs and adults hiding in surrounding areas. If the entire infestation is not eliminated prior to bringing new or cleaned personal and household items back into a home, these items will likely become infested and require additional treatment.[33]

Treating clothing, shoes, linens, and other household items within the affected environment is difficult and frequently ineffective because of the difficulty of keeping cleaned items quarantined from infestation. Many bed bug exterminating specialists recommend removing personal and household items from the infested structure. Many metropolitan areas offer more effective treatments such as high-heat dryers and dry cleaning with PERC with the added benefit of the treated items remaining stored until the affected home's bed bug infestation is eradicated.[33]

The improper disposal of infested furniture also facilitates the spread of bed bugs. Marking the discarded items as infested can help prevent infesting new areas. Items may also be sealed in plastic and stored until all eggs hatch and all larvae and adults have died.[citation needed] Bed bugs can go without feeding for 20 to 400 days, depending on temperature and humidity. Older stages of nymphs can survive longer without feeding than younger ones, and adults have survived without food for more than 400 days in the laboratory at low temperatures. Adults may live up to one year or more, and there can be up to four successive generations per year.[34]

Vacuuming helps with reducing bed bug infestations, but does not eliminate bed bugs hidden inside of materials. Also, unless the contents of the vacuum are emptied immediately after each use, bedbugs may crawl out through the vacuum's hoses and re-establish themselves. Vacuuming with a large bristle attachment can also aid in removing hidden bugs as well.

Steam treatment can effectively kill all stages of bed bugs. To be effective, steam treatment must reach 150170 degrees Fahrenheit (65 - 75 degrees C) for a sustained period. Unfortunately, bed bugs hide in a diversity of places, making steam treatment very tedious, labour-intensive and time consuming. There is also the risk of the steam not penetrating materials enough to kill hidden bed bugs. The steam may also damage materials such as varnished wood, or cause mold from the moisture left behind. Effective treatment requires repeated and very thorough steaming of the mattress, box spring, bed frame, bed covers, pillows, not to mention other materials and objects within the infested room, such as carpets and curtains.

Infested clothes can be effectively treated by a high-temperature ironing with vapor. If performed meticulously, this method yields faster disinfection compared to high-temperature washing in a washing machine. However, attention should be paid in order to avoid bedbug escape from the ironed clothes.

For volumetric objects (e.g. pillow, blanket, sleeping bag, rug), boiling in a large saucepan for more than 10 minutes represents a reliable method. In this manner, the lethal temperatures propagate with certainty deep inside the object, which is not necessarily the case of a washing machine cleaning cycle.

For smaller objects, pouring boiling water from a kettle onto the object located in a basin may be enough to kill bed bugs and eggs.

Clothes dryers can be used for killing bed bugs in clothing and blankets. Infested clothes and bedding are first washed in hot water with laundry detergent then placed in the dryer for at least 20 minutes at high heat.[35] However, this does not eliminate bed bugs in the mattress, bed frame and surrounding environment. Sterilized fabrics from the dryer are thus easily re-infested. Continually treating materials in this fashion is labour-intensive, and in itself does not eliminate the infestation.

Placing belongings in a hot box, a device that provides sustained heat at temperatures that kills bedbugs, larvae, and eggs, but that does not damage clothing, is an option. Pest control companies often rent the devices at nominal cost and it may make sense for frequent travelers to invest in one.[citation needed]

This method of bed bug control involves raising room temperatures to or above the killing temperature for bed bugs, which is around 45C (113F).[36] Heat treatments are generally carried out by professionals, and may be performed in a single area or an entire building. Heat treatment is generally considered to be the best method of eradication because it is capable of destroying an entire infestation with a single treatment.

HEPA air filtration is normally used during any heat treatment to capture particulate and biological matter that may be aerosolized during the heating process.

Bed bugs can be killed by a direct one-hour exposure to temperatures of 16C (3F), however, bed bugs have the capacity for rapid cold hardening, i.e. an hour-long exposure to 0C (32F) improved their subsequent tolerance of 14 to 16C (7 to 3F),[37] so this may need to be maintained for longer. Freezer temperatures at or below 16C (3F) should be sufficient to eliminate bed bugs and can be used to decontaminate household objects. This temperature range should be effective at killing eggs as well as all stages of bugs.[38] Higher temperatures however are not effective, and survival is estimated for temperatures above 12C (10F) even after 1 week of continuous exposure.[38]

This method requires a freezer capable of maintaining, and set to, a temperature below 16C (3F). Most home freezers are capable of maintaining this temperature.

Preliminary research has shown the fungus Beauveria bassiana, which has been used for years as an outdoor organic pesticide, is also highly effective at eliminating bed bugs exposed to cotton fabric sprayed with fungus spores. It is also effective against bed bug colonies due to the spores carried by infected bugs back to their harborages. Unlike typical insecticides, exposure to the fungus does not kill instantly, but kills bugs within five days of exposure. Some people, especially those with compromised immune systems, may react negatively to the concentrated presence of the fungus directly following an application.[39]

Early research shows that the common drug taken to get rid of parasitic worms, ivermectin (Stromectol), also kills bed bugs when taken by humans at normal doses. The drug enters the human bloodstream and if the bedbugs bite during that time, the bedbug will die in a few days. Stromectol is also effective against mosquitoes, which can be useful controlling malaria.[40]


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A reader writes,

Hello,

I found your site and wanted to ask a question. I rent an NYC apartment and it has been confirmed by an exterminator that we have bed bugs. I am wondering about the transportation of bed bugs. For example, I work in a corporate officeWhat are the odds that Ive transported the bed bugs to the office? Can they be living on my chair at work? Can they be transported through hugging or close contact with others? I check my clothing and have not seen any bugs walking around on myself or clothing, but can the eggs be transported by any of the above situations?

Thank you so much in advance for your feedback.

Best regards, bugginINlowerNYC

Hi bugginINlowerNYC,

Sorry for your bed bug troubles. The bad news is that bed bugs can spread. They can catch a ride in your clothing or bag, and hop off somewhere else to start a new life. Its worth considering this possibility, as you are. The good news is they dont spread that easily, and it is possible to avoid this using some precautions.

Its also worth noting that they can bite during the daytime, a fact which some people just dont acknowledge. If bed bugs are in a school, a corporate office, or somewhere else where people are not sitting or lying down at night, they will bite by daylight.

Lets take your questions one by one:

I am wondering about the transportation of bed bugs. For example, I work in a corporate officeWhat are the odds that Ive transported the bed bugs to the office?

First of all, dont panic. It happens, but I would say it is a small percentage of people who report this.

Though few people report this happening, we do also encourage people to take precautions against it. If it does happen, not only can you create a stressful situation at work, but you are also likely to reinfest yourself at home, even if treatment at home is going well.

Precautions might include carefully inspecting purses, shoes, etc. and treating them in appropriate ways if necessary; storing them in the home carefully; washing and drying clothing on hot and storing it in sealed containers (e.g. XL ziplocs) before use; showering and dressing in this cleaned-dried-sealed-up clothing directly before going out to work or anywhere else.

If, instead, you sit around at home, then hop up, grab a bag off your (possibly infested) sofa, hop in the car, and go to work (friends home, etc.) then you are more likely to bring bed bugs elsewhere.

And while few people have reported taking them to work, many people have reported giving them to relatives, friends, etc.

Finally, this is not your situation, but for others out there, some folks think they have bed bugs at home, where they might actually be bitten at work. Since bite marks and itching seem to appear after one is bitten (anywhere from a few hours to the next day or longer), it is possible to be bitten at work and think you are bitten at home. Keeping a log of when new bites appear might help you pinpoint this. Most people seem to first notice new bites sometime the day after being bitten: in the morning, afternoon, or evening, in many cases. Lots of Bedbuggers notice them after a warm or hot shower, or exercise, suggesting that heat can bring them out somehow. That is based on anecdotal evidence; unfortunately, this stuff has not really been studied yet.

Can they be living on my chair at work?

Yesor, for that matter, a chair at home. Sofas, soft chairs, desk chairs, anything really: if you sit there for long periods (working at your desk, zoning out at home in front of the internet or a movie), you can be bitten. And they are likely to hide out near where they feed.

But remember in addition to beds or chairs, bed bugs can actually live in the room itself (under baseboards, in floor cracks, around edges of carpeting, even behind electrical plates).

Can they be transported through hugging or close contact with others?

It is possible, but not easy. As per the first answer above, they will hitchhike in your bag, or even an item of clothing. If you are wearing washed, clean clothes, and if you take care to store items like coats and shoes properly, then it would be difficult for them to do so. Also, even if they did hitchhike, say in a trouser cuff or bag, they would not likely ride around very long. They want to bite you and then run off and hide inside something that is not moving!

Again, this does not apply to your situation, but we have heard of extremely serious infestations of people who did not bathe or change their clothing regularly, who were walking around covered in bed bugs. This is a rare situation, but it can happen.

I check my clothing and have not seen any bugs walking around on myself or clothing, but can the eggs be transported by any of the above situations?

It is possible a bed bug could have left an egg in your clothing. However, eggs take 6-17 days to hatch according to this Cornell fact sheet. So if youre washing your clothing and storing it as we describe during your infestation, this should not be a problem. Washing and drying on hot will kill bed bugs and eggs. If a hot wash will damage your clothes, Dr. Michael Potter has done some research on drying dry items on hot (which should be safer for items not suitable for machine washing and drying together). These FAQs about dealing with clothing should help.

For the benefit of others, I should point out that the precautions are not difficult in and of themselves, but they become moreso if you a lot of people in your home, or live with elderly people, children, people with various disabilities, or even adults who do not want to participate. I do not discount these difficulties, but am simply suggesting what has worked for others.

I hope other readers will comment with additional suggestions, questions, or comments.


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The Pest Advice: How Fast do Bed Bugs Breed?

Post date: November 17th, 2016

"How fast do bed bugs breed?" is a question I have been asked several times recently. What people want to know is how fast will a bed bug problem grow after bed bugs are introduced to their home.It is not an easy question to answer because the answer is different in different situations. Temperature, availability of food (blood), availability of mates, predator numbers etc. will all influence the rate at which bed bugs can breed. But estimates can be made based on normal conditions. The answer is both interesting and disturbing.

Recent work has found that youshould notexpect a population explosion before 3 to 4 months has passed and it is only at this point that an infestation may be detected easily. When there are only a few adult bed bugs they can be difficult to detect. The infestation may not be noticed until the problem escalates because, even though people may be being bitten, the majority of people do not react to bites andmay beoblivious of the fact that they are having their blood sucked in their sleep.

Month 1- If a single pregnant female is introduced to a bedroom, perhaps as the result of bringing one home after travelling to and staying in an infested hotel, it is likely that there will still be only one breeding adult one month after introduction. However, there will be as many as 60 nymphs in various stages of development and 20-30 eggs. When bed bugs hatch from an egg they are very small and are unlikely to be seen by the naked eye. The bugs go through 5 stages of growth (instars), eachgrowth stage requires a blood feed. Only in the final adult stage is a bed bug able to lay eggs.

Month 2 - By now there is likely to be less than 10 adult bed bugs, but as many as 150 nymphs and a few eggs.

Month 4 - By day 120 the bed bug population is into exponential growth phase with up to 200 adults, 5,000 nymphs and 2,000 eggs.

Month 6 - If there is sufficient blood to feed on and places to hide, an infestation could now be at enormous proportions and would undoubtedly have spread to all adjacent rooms. There could be 8,000 adults, over 100,000 nymphs and 70,000 eggs.

This scenario shows that early detection and treatment of bed bugs is vital. Carrying out a thorough inspection of a bed and bedroom as soon as there is any suspicion of bed bugs and treatment with the Kiwicare NO Bed Bugs Boxcan 'nip the problem in the bud.' Or better still, be proactive about preventing bed bugs being brought into the home by treating luggage before travelling.

A bed bug walks into a bar and asks for 2 blood lites!


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How to Get Rid of Bed Bugs: 8 Best Bed Bug Traps, Sprays and Dusts

stoppestinfo.com/199-the-complete-guide-to-killing-bed-bu... | What is the best bed bug trap? What kills bed bugs for sure? Here you’ll find 8 bed bug traps, mattress protectors, sprays and dusts, approved by the scientists.

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Does Lysol kill bed bugs and bed bugs eggs? Lysol spray is not only a disinfectant but can also be used to get rid of bed bugs at home. Learn more on how to use Lysol spray to kill bed bugs fast.

If you have been infested by beg bugs, you probably had the worst experience of your life. Bed bugs are stubborn and can get in your hair. They will keep on switching position. Unlike other pests such as fleas and lice that are known to have claws that are specially made for navigating even through the hair, the usual bed bugs do not have these modifications to move freely through the hair.

Bedbugs will have to adjust their front claws in specific positions to suck blood through the skin. They find it hard to do this in the human head and the hair. Instead bed bugs find it easier to feed on bare skin. Most people will suffer bites on their faces or the arms and other less hairy places that bed bugs find it easier to feed on.

Lysol spray is a chemical disinfectant manufactured to help remove viruses and bacteria from our homes. While doing your household chores, we come in contact with viruses and bacteria. Your family is at risk of infections if your home is not properly cleaned and disinfected. Lysol spray can help remove germs on commonly touched palaces.

Additionally, you can use Lysol spray to get rid of bed bugs menace in your home. Does it really work? Lysol products can be used to kill surfaces, clean kitchen surface and get rid of bed bugs at home.

There are many chemical and other treatments that available to kill and get rid of bed bugs permanently. Lysol can be used as disinfectant as well to get rid of bed bugs at home too. If you discover you have bed bugs infestation in your home, find their location before spraying Lysol. You can devise methods to trap the bed bugs, this will ensure you kill them in plenty.

Does Lysol kill bed bugs? Lysol has chemical ingredients that get rid of bed bugs fast. In fact most cases, pests cannot survive in chemically sprayed conditions. However, it is important to note that Lysol will only kill bedbugs when directly sprayed on them. This simply means, you need a lot of spraying to kill more of the bed bugs fast.

Can Lysol kills bed bugs? There are multiple strategies to get rid of bed bugs at home. You can not underestimate the ability of Lysol spray to kill bed bugs. The important critical factor is to use Lysol spray to a great number of bed bugs. As pointed out earlier, majority of bed bugs will hide as soon as the feel the scent of the Lysol spray.

This may create an illusion that they are all dead. Finding their hideouts should be the first step before spraying randomly. The effectiveness of Lysol spray reduces as soon as it dries up. This makes it less dependable if you find yourself working on a low kitchen budget.

If you suspect bed bugs presence in your home, worry not. Lysol does kill bedbugs and so do many disinfectant chemicals in your home. However, the trick to have many bed bugs killed is locate their hidings and spray directly on them as much as you can. When the bed bugs are immersed in the Lysol spray, they get suffocated and end up dying instantly.

You may as well combine Lysol with other strategies to get rid of bedbugs completely. For instance, use steam water to drive out the bed bugs from their hideouts. Common hiding places for bed bugs include: wall crevices, drawer of the desks, furniture and window frames.

It is important to steam the bed bugs before spraying Lysol on the bed bugs, otherwise you risk vaporizing the spray. This can be fatal to your to your health specifically your respiratory system. While spraying remember that Lysol works well in wet condition, do not leave anything to chance.

You can use Lysol disinfectant to spray bed bugs and other pests. Lysol is not only a disinfectant to clean kitchen surfaces and ward off viruses and bacteria, but it can also get rid of bed bugs naturally. Once you spot the bed bugs location, spray the bed bugs. This simple home remedy helps to exterminate these stubborn pests completely.

Always keep in mind that Lysol kills bed bugs best in wet conditions, as soon as the spray dries up, the effect on those bed bugs still surviving will be minimal. In case you are spraying your bedroom, it is important to enclose your mattresses and pillows. This helps you to find majority of the bedbugs and limit the bed bugs from finding escape route easily.

Using Lysol to repel bed bugs may work to get rid of them. However, killing moving bed bugs is not a sure that they are all dead. Bed bugs can lay unseen eggs in your mattresses and pillows. If you have to kill all the bed bugs, ensure the eggs too are destroyed to stop new life from developing just some months after spraying.

Lysol might not be effective to kill the bed bugs eggs but you can use other combination to get rid of traces of eggs. Use hot water steam to destroy the eggs, hot conditions from steam will completely destroy the eggs and the life cycles of bed bugs.

Bed bugs infestation can really be a menace and cause you sleepless nights. You can use Lysol spray to get rid of the infestation of bed bugs. Heres how to use.

Dealing with pesticides and other insect repellants is dangerous to your health. According to Dr. Oz post in his blog, you should NOT try to exterminate bed bugs yourself. The pest might not be dangerous and do not carry the diseases but the chemicals in Lysol have harmful effects to your health and your family too.

While using Lysol spray to try and kill pests in the house, it is important to know the ingredients in Lysol. You expose yourself to significant health risks more than any other product meant for disinfestation. Lysol has denatured ethanol that can affect your eye sight, or the mucous membrane of the eye. If the Lysol spray is ingested or inhaled it can affect your central nervous system too.

Only professionals in pest control should be allowed to fumigate your house or office. If you choose to get rid of bed bugs at home, you should seek advice from the trained experts. Otherwise the ingredients in Lysol spray are toxic and has been linked to cause serious health conditions such as bronchitis, pulmonary edema and even cancer.

It is recommended to call a professional to have the work done safely.

Lysol kills bed bugs at home, including germs in your babys room. Lysol disinfectant spray is significant in removing unseen germs from your babys room. Some of the commonly touched surfaces can be the source of infections for children or toddlers. Similarly, Lysol helps to repel pests such as bed bugs, which can be harmful for your babys growth.


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Bed bug infestation – Wikipedia

Post date: October 24th, 2016

A bed bug can individually and collectively cause a number of health effects including skin rashes, psychological effects and allergic symptoms.[1] Bed bug bites or cimicosis may lead to a range of skin manifestations from no visible effects to prominent blisters.[2]:446 Diagnosis involves both finding bed bugs and the occurrence of compatible symptoms.[1] Treatment involves the elimination of the insect but is otherwise symptomatic.[1]

Because infestation of human habitats has been on the increase in developed countries, bed bug bites and related conditions have been on the rise as well, since the 1980s1990s.[3][4] The exact causes of this resurgence remain unclear; it is variously ascribed to greater foreign travel, more frequent exchange of second-hand furnishings among homes, a greater focus on control of other pests resulting in neglect of bed bug countermeasures, and increasing resistance to pesticides.[4][5] Bed bugs have been known human parasites for thousands of years.[3]

Individual responses to bites vary, ranging from no visible effect (in about 2070%),[1][3] to small macular spots, to prominent wheals and bullae formations along with intense itching that may last several days.[1] The bites often occur in a line. A central hemorrhagic spot may also occur due to the release of anticoagulants in the saliva.[4]

Symptoms may not appear until some days after the bites have occurred.[1] Reactions often become more brisk after multiple bites due to possible sensitization to the salivary proteins of the bed bug.[3] The skin reaction usually occurs in the area of the bite which is most commonly the arms, shoulders and legs as they are more frequently exposed at night.[1] Numerous bites may lead to an erythematous rash or urticaria.[1]

Serious infestations and chronic attacks can cause anxiety, stress, and insomnia.[1] Development of refractory delusional parasitosis is possible, as a person develops an overwhelming obsession with bed bugs.[6]

A number of other symptoms may occur from either the bite of the bed bugs or from their exposure. Anaphylaxis from the injection of serum and other nonspecific proteins has been rarely documented.[1][7] Due to each bite taking a tiny amount of blood, chronic or severe infestation may lead to anemia.[1]Bacterial skin infection may occur due to skin break down from scratching.[1][8] Systemic poisoning may occur if the bites are numerous.[9] Exposure to bed bugs may trigger an asthma attack via the effects of airborne allergens although evidence of this association is limited.[1] There is no evidence that bed bugs transmit infectious diseases[1] even though they appear physically capable of carrying pathogens and this possibility has been investigated.[1][3] The bite itself may be painful thus resulting in poor sleep and worse work performance.[1]

Bed bug bites are caused by bed bugs primarily of two species Cimex lectularius (the common bed bug) and Cimex hemipterus.[3]Infestation is rarely due to a lack of hygiene.[10] These insects feed exclusively on blood and may survive a year without eating.[3] They are attracted by body warmth and carbon dioxide.[4] Transfer to new places is usually in the personal effects of the human they feed upon.[3]

Dwellings can become infested with bed bugs in a variety of ways, such as:

A definitive diagnosis of health effects due to bed bugs requires a search for and finding of the insect in the sleeping environment as symptoms are not sufficiently specific.[1] Other possible conditions with which these conditions can be confused include scabies, allergic reactions, mosquito bites, spider bites, chicken pox and bacterial skin infections.[1] Bed bugs classically form a line of bites colloquially referred to as "breakfast, lunch, and dinner" and rarely feed in the armpit or behind the knee which may help differentiate it from other biting insects.[4] If the number in a house is large a pungent sweet odor may be described.[4]

Treatment requires keeping the person from being repeatedly bitten and possible symptomatic use of antihistamines and corticosteroids (either topically or systemically).[1] There however is no evidence that medications improve outcomes and symptoms usually resolve without treatment in 12 weeks.[3][4]

Avoiding repeated bites can be difficult, since it usually requires eradicating bed bugs from a home or workplace; eradication frequently requires a combination of pesticide and non pesticide approaches.[3] Pesticides that have historically been found to be effective include pyrethroids, dichlorvos and malathion.[4] Resistance to pesticides has increased significantly over time and there are concerns of negative health effects from their usage.[3] Mechanical approaches such as vacuuming up the insects and heat treating or wrapping mattresses have been recommended.[3]

Bed bugs occur around the world.[15] Rates of infestations in developed countries, while decreasing from the 1930s to the 1980s, have increased dramatically since the 1980s.[3][4][15] Previous to this they were common in the developing world but rare in the developed world.[4] The increase in the developed world may have been caused by increased international travel, resistance to insecticides, and the use of new pest-control methods that do not affect bed bugs.[5][16] The fall in bed bug populations after the 1930s in the developed world is believed to be partly due to the usage of DDT to kill cockroaches.[17] The invention of the vacuum cleaner and simplification of furniture design may have also played a role.[17] Others believe it might simply be the cyclical nature of the organism.[18]

Bed bugs have been known to be a human parasite for thousands of years and many different methods have been attempted to deal with them.[3]

Plants traditionally used as bed bug repellents include black cohosh (Actaea racemosa), Pseudarthria hookeri, and Laggera alata (Chinese yngmo co | ), though information about their effectiveness is lacking.[19]Eucalyptus saligna oil was reported by some Zairean researchers to kill bed bugs, among other insects.[20][21]

In the 18th century, turpentine was used in combination with henna (Lawsonia inermis) flowers and alcohol, as an insecticide that also reputedly killed bed bug eggs.[22]

Other items that were believed to kill bed bugs in the early 19th century include "infused oil of Melolontha vulgaris" (presumably a kind of cockchafer), fly agaric (Amanita muscaria), Actaea spp. (e.g. black cohosh), tobacco, "heated oil of Terebinthina" (i.e. true turpentine), wild mint (Mentha arvensis), narrow-leaved pepperwort (Lepidium ruderale), Myrica spp. (e.g. bayberry), Robert Geranium (Geranium robertianum), bugbane (Cimicifuga spp.), "herb and seeds of Cannabis", "Opulus" berries (possibly a kind of maple, or European cranberrybush), masked hunter bugs (Reduvius personatus), "and many others."[23] In the mid-19th century, smoke from peat fires was recommended.[24]

The use of black pepper to repel bed bugs is attested in George Orwell's 1933 non-fiction book Down and Out in Paris and London.

Dusts have been used to ward off insects from grain storage for centuries, including "plant ash, lime, dolomite, certain types of soil, and diatomaceous earth (DE) or Kieselguhr".[25] Of these, diatomaceous earth in particular has seen a revival as a non-toxic (when in amorphous form) residual pesticide for bed bug abatement. Insects exposed to diatomaceous earth may take several days to die.[25]

Basket-work panels were put around beds and shaken out in the morning, in the UK and in France in the 19th century. Scattering leaves of plants with microscopic hooked hairs around a bed at night, then sweeping them up in the morning and burning them, was a technique reportedly used in Southern Rhodesia and in the Balkans.[26]

The rise in infestations has been hard to track because bed bugs are not an easily identifiable problem. Most of the reports are collected from pest-control companies, local authorities, and hotel chains.[27] Therefore, the problem may be more severe than is currently believed.[28]

Bed bugs are an increasing cause for litigation.[29] Courts have, in some cases, exacted large punitive damage judgments on some hotels.[30][31][32] Many of Manhattan's Upper East Side home owners have been afflicted, but they tend to be silent publicly in order not to ruin their property values and be seen as suffering a blight typically associated with the lower classes.[33]


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Bed bug – Wikipedia

Post date: October 16th, 2016

Bed bugs are parasitic insects of the cimicid family that feed exclusively on blood. Cimex lectularius, the common bed bug, is the best known as it prefers to feed on human blood. Other Cimex species specialize in other animals, e.g., bat bugs, such as Cimex pipistrelli (Europe), Cimex pilosellus (western US), and Cimex adjunctus (entire eastern US).[2]

The name bed bug derives from the preferred habitat of Cimex lectularius: warm houses and especially near or inside beds and bedding or other sleep areas. Bed bugs are mainly active at night, but are not exclusively nocturnal. They usually feed on their hosts without being noticed.[3][4][5]

A number of adverse health effects may result from bed bug bites, including skin rashes, psychological effects, and allergic symptoms.[6] Bed bugs are not known to transmit any pathogens as disease vectors. Certain signs and symptoms suggest the presence of bed bugs; finding the adult insects confirms the diagnosis.

Bed bugs have been known as human parasites for thousands of years.[7] At a point in the early 1940s, they were mostly eradicated in the developed world, but have increased in prevalence since 1995, likely due to pesticide resistance, governmental bans on effective pesticides, and international travel.[8][9] Because infestation of human habitats has begun to increase, bed bug bites and related conditions have been on the rise as well.[7][10]

Diagnosis of an infestation involves both finding bed bugs and the occurrence of compatible symptoms.[6] Treatment involves the elimination of the insect (including its eggs) and taking measures to treat symptoms until they resolve.[6]

Bed bug bites or cimicosis may lead to a range of skin manifestations from no visible effects to prominent blisters.[11] Effects include skin rashes, psychological effects, and allergic symptoms.[6]

Although bed bugs can be infected with at least 28 human pathogens, no studies have found that the insects are capable of transmitting any of these to humans.[10] They have been found with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)[12] and with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE), but the significance of this is still unknown.[13]

Investigations into potential transmission of HIV, MRSA, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and hepatitis E have not shown that bed bugs can spread these diseases. However, arboviruses may be transmissible.[14]

Adult bed bugs are light brown to reddish-brown, flattened, oval-shaped, and have no hind wings. The front wings are vestigial and reduced to pad-like structures. Bed bugs have segmented abdomens with microscopic hairs that give them a banded appearance. Adults grow to 45mm (0.160.20in) long and 1.53mm (0.0590.118in) wide.

Newly hatched nymphs are translucent, lighter in color, and become browner as they moult and reach maturity. A bed bug nymph of any age that has just consumed a blood meal has a bright red, translucent abdomen, fading to brown over the next several hours, and to opaque black within two days as the insect digests its meal. Bed bugs may be mistaken for other insects, such as booklice, small cockroaches, or carpet beetles; however, when warm and active, their movements are more ant-like and, like most other true bugs, they emit a characteristic disagreeable odor when crushed.

Bed bugs use pheromones and kairomones to communicate regarding nesting locations, feeding, and reproduction.

The lifespan of bed bugs varies by species and is also dependent on feeding.

Bed bugs can survive a wide range of temperatures and atmospheric compositions.[15] Below 16.1C (61.0F), adults enter semihibernation and can survive longer; they can survive for at least five days at 10C (14F), but die after 15 minutes of exposure to 32C (26F).[16] Common commercial and residential freezers reach temperatures low enough to kill most life stages of bed bug, with 95% mortality after 3 days at 12C (10F).[17] They show high desiccation tolerance, surviving low humidity and a 3540C range even with loss of one-third of body weight; earlier life stages are more susceptible to drying out than later ones.[18]

The thermal death point for C. lectularius is 45C (113F); all stages of life are killed by 7 minutes of exposure to 46C (115F).[16] Bed bugs apparently cannot survive high concentrations of carbon dioxide for very long; exposure to nearly pure nitrogen atmospheres, however, appears to have relatively little effect even after 72 hours.[19]

Bed bugs are obligatory hematophagous (bloodsucking) insects. Most species feed on humans only when other prey are unavailable.[20][21][22] They obtain all the additional moisture they need from water vapor in the surrounding air.[23] Bed bugs are attracted to their hosts primarily by carbon dioxide, secondarily by warmth, and also by certain chemicals.[24][25][26] Bedbugs prefer exposed skin, preferably the face, neck, and arms of a sleeping person.

Bedbugs have mouth parts that saw through the skin, and inject saliva with anticoagulants and painkillers. Sensitivity of humans varies from extreme allergic reaction to no reaction at all (about 20%). The bite usually produces a swelling with no red spot, but when many bugs feed on a small area, reddish spots may appear after the swelling subsides.[16]

Although under certain cool conditions adult bed bugs can live for over a year without feeding,[27] under typically warm conditions they try to feed at five- to ten-day intervals, and adults can survive for about five months without food.[28] Younger instars cannot survive nearly as long, though even the vulnerable newly hatched first instars can survive for weeks without taking a blood meal.

At the 57th annual meeting of the Entomological Society of America in 2009, newer generations of pesticide-resistant bed bugs in Virginia were reported to survive only two months without feeding.[29]

DNA from human blood meals can be recovered from bed bugs for up to 90 days, which mean they can be used for forensic purposes in identifying on whom the bed bugs have fed.[30][31]

A bed bug pierces the skin of its host with a stylet fascicle, rostrum, or "beak". The rostrum is composed of the maxillae and mandibles, which have been modified into elongated shapes from a basic, ancestral style. The right and left maxillary stylets are connected at their midline and a section at the centerline forms a large food canal and a smaller salivary canal. The entire maxillary and mandibular bundle penetrates the skin.[5]

The tips of the right and left maxillary stylets are not the same; the right is hook-like and curved, and the left is straight. The right and left mandibular stylets extend along the outer sides of their respective maxillary stylets and do not reach anywhere near the tip of the fused maxillary stylets. The stylets are retained in a groove in the labium, and during feeding, they are freed from the groove as the jointed labium is bent or folded out of the way; its tip never enters the wound.[5]

The mandibular stylet tips have small teeth, and through alternately moving these stylets back and forth, the insect cuts a path through tissue for the maxillary bundle to reach an appropriately sized blood vessel. Pressure from the blood vessel itself fills the insect with blood in three to five minutes. The bug then withdraws the stylet bundle from the feeding position and retracts it back into the labial groove, folds the entire unit back under the head, and returns to its hiding place.[5] It takes between five and ten minutes for a bed bug to become completely engorged with blood.[32] In all, the insect may spend less than 20 minutes in physical contact with its host, and does not try to feed again until it has either completed a moult or, if an adult, has thoroughly digested the meal.

All bed bugs mate by traumatic insemination.[4][33] Female bed bugs possess a reproductive tract that functions during oviposition, but the male does not use this tract for sperm insemination.[4] Instead, the male pierces the female's abdomen with his hypodermic penis and ejaculates into the body cavity. In all bed bug species except Primicimex cavernis, sperm are injected into the mesospermalege,[4] a component of the spermalege,[4] a secondary genital structure that reduces the wounding and immunological costs of traumatic insemination.[34][35][36] Injected sperm travel via the haemolymph (blood) to sperm storage structures called seminal conceptacles, with fertilisation eventually taking place at the ovaries.[35]

Male bed bugs sometimes attempt to mate with other males and pierce their abdomens.[37] This behaviour occurs because sexual attraction in bed bugs is based primarily on size, and males mount any freshly fed partner regardless of sex.[38] The "bed bug alarm pheromone" consists of (E)-2-octenal and (E)-2-hexenal. It is released when a bed bug is disturbed, as during an attack by a predator. A 2009 study demonstrated the alarm pheromone is also released by male bed bugs to repel other males that attempt to mate with them.[36][39]

Cimex lectularius and C. hemipterus mate with each other given the opportunity, but the eggs then produced are usually sterile. In a 1988 study, one of 479 eggs was fertile and resulted in a hybrid, Cimex hemipterus lectularius.[40][41]

Cimex lectularius males have environmental microbes on their genitals. These microbes damage sperm cells, leaving them unable to fertilize female gametes. Due to these dangerous microbes, males have evolved antimicrobial ejaculate substances that prevent sperm damage. When the microbes contact sperm or the male genitals, the bed bug releases antimicrobial substances. Many species of these microbes live in the bodies of females after mating. The microbes can cause infections in the females. It has been suggested that females receive benefit from the ejaculate. Though the benefit is not direct, females are able to produce more eggs than optimum increasing the amount of the females' genes in the gene pool.[42]

In organisms, sexual selection extends past differential reproduction to affect sperm composition, sperm competition, and ejaculate size. Males of C. lectularius allocate 12% of their sperm and 19% of their seminal fluid per mating. Due to these findings, Reinhard et. al proposed that multiple mating is limited by seminal fluid and not sperm. After measuring ejaculate volume, mating rate and estimating sperm density, Reinhardt et al. showed that mating could be limited by seminal fluid. Despite these advances, the cost difference between ejaculate-dose dependence and mating frequency dependence have not been explored.[43]

Males fertilize females only by traumatic insemination into the structure called the ectospermalege (the organ of Berlese, however the organ of Ribaga, as it was first named, was first designated as an organ of stridulation. These two names are not descriptive, so other terminologies are used). On fertilization, the female's ovaries finish developing, which suggests that sperm plays a role other than fertilizing the egg. Fertilization also allows for egg production through the corpus allatum. Sperm remains viable in a female's spermathecae (a better term is conceptacle), a sperm-carrying sack, for a long period of time as long as body temperature is optimum. The female lays fertilized eggs until she depletes the sperm found in her conceptacle. After the depletion of sperm, she lays a few sterile eggs. The number of eggs a C. lectularius female produces does not depend on the sperm she harbors, but on the female's nutritional level.[44]

In C. lectularius, males sometimes mount other males because male sexual interest is directed at any recently fed individual regardless of their sex, but unfed females may also be mounted. Traumatic insemination is the only way for copulation to occur in bed bugs. Females have evolved the spermalege to protect themselves from wounding and infection. Because males lack this organ, traumatic insemination could leave them badly injured. For this reason, males have evolved alarm pheromones to signal their sex to other males. If a male C. lectularius mounts another male, the mounted male releases the pheromone signal and the male on top stops before insemination.

Females are capable of producing alarm pheromones to avoid multiple mating, but they generally do not do so. Two reasons are proposed as to why females do not release alarm pheromones to protect themselves. First, alarm pheromone production is costly. Due to egg production, females may refrain from spending additional energy on alarm pheromones. The second proposed reason is that releasing the alarm pheromone reduces the benefits associated with multiple mating.[45] Benefits of multiple mating include material benefits, better quality nourishment or more nourishment, genetic benefits including increased fitness of offspring, and finally, the cost of resistance may be higher than the benefit of consentwhich appears the case in C. lectularius.[46]

Bed bugs have five immature nymph life stages and a final sexually mature adult stage.[47] They shed their skins through ecdysis at each stage, discarding their outer exoskeleton, which is somewhat clear, empty exoskeletons of the bugs themselves. Bed bugs must molt six times before becoming fertile adults, and must consume at least one blood meal to complete each moult.[48]

Each of the immature stages lasts about a week, depending on temperature and the availability of food, and the complete lifecycle can be completed in as little as two months (rather long compared to other ectoparasites). Fertilized females with enough food lay three to four eggs each day continually until the end of their lifespans (about nine months under warm conditions), possibly generating as many as 500 eggs in this time.[48]Genetic analysis has shown that a single pregnant bed bug, possibly a single survivor of eradication, can be responsible for an entire infestation over a matter of weeks, rapidly producing generations of offspring.[49]

Slide of Cimex lectularius

Bed bug (4mm length; 2.5mm width), shown in a film roll plastic container, on the right is the recently sloughed skin from its nymph stage

A bed bug nymph feeding on a host

Blood-fed C. lectularius (note the differences in color with respect to digestion of blood meal)

Sexual dimorphism occurs in C. lectularius, with the females larger in size than the males on average. The abdomens of the sexes differ in that the males appear to have "pointed" abdomens, which are actually their copulatory organs, while females have more rounded abdomens. Since males are attracted to large body size, any bed bug with a recent blood meal can be seen as a potential mate. However, males will mount unfed, flat females on occasion. The female is able to curl her abdomen forward and underneath toward the head to not mate. Males are generally unable to discriminate between the sexes until after mounting, but before inseminating.[50]

C. lectularius only feeds every five to seven days, which suggests that it does not spend the majority of its life searching for a host. When a bed bug is starved, it leaves its shelter and searches for a host. If it successfully feeds, it returns to its shelter. If it does not feed, it continues to search for a host. After searchingregardless of whether or not it has eatenthe bed bug returns to the shelter to aggregate before the photophase (period of light during a day-night cycle). Reis argues that two reasons explain why C. lectularius would return to its shelter and aggregate after feeding. One is to find a mate and the other is to find shelter to avoid getting smashed after eating.[51]

C. lectularius aggregates under all life stages and mating conditions. Bed bugs may choose to aggregate because of predation, resistance to desiccation, and more opportunities to find a mate. Airborne pheromones are responsible for aggregations. Another source of aggregation could be the recognition of other C. lectularius bugs through mechanoreceptors located on their antennae. Aggregations are formed and disbanded based on the associated cost and benefits. Females are more often found separate from the aggregation than males. Females are more likely to expand the population range and find new sites. Active female dispersal can account for treatment failures. Males, when found in areas with few females, abandon an aggregation to find a new mate. The males excrete an aggregation pheromone into the air that attracts virgin females and arrests other males.[52]

Bed bugs can exist singly, but tend to congregate once established. Though strictly parasitic, they spend only a tiny fraction of their lifecycles physically attached to hosts. Once a bed bug finishes feeding, it relocates to a place close to a known host, commonly in or near beds or couches in clusters of adults, juveniles, and eggswhich entomologists call harborage areas or simply harborages to which the insect returns after future feedings by following chemical trails. These places can vary greatly in format, including luggage, inside of vehicles, within furniture, amongst bedside cluttereven inside electrical sockets and nearby laptop computers. Bed bugs may also nest near animals that have nested within a dwelling, such as bats, birds,[53] or rodents. They are also capable of surviving on domestic cats and dogs, though humans are the preferred host of C. lectularius.[54]

Bed bugs can also be detected by their characteristic smell of rotting raspberries.[55]Bed bug detection dogs are trained to pinpoint infestations, with a possible accuracy rate between 11% and 83%.[56]

Eradication of bed bugs frequently requires a combination of nonpesticide approaches and the occasional use of pesticides.[7][10]

Mechanical approaches, such as vacuuming up the insects and heat-treating or wrapping mattresses, are effective.[7][56] A combination of heat and drying treatments is most effective. An hour at a temperature of 45C (113F) or over, or two hours at less than 17C (1F) kills them;[56] a domestic clothes drier or steam kills bedbugs.[16] Another study found 100% mortality rates for bed bugs exposed to temperatures greater than 50C (122F) for more than 2 minutes.[57] Starving them is difficult as they can survive without eating for 100 to 300 days, depending on temperature.[56] For public health reasons, individuals are encouraged to call a professional pest control service to eradicate bed bugs in a home, rather than attempting to do it themselves, particularly if they live in a multifamily building.[58]

As of 2012[update], no truly effective pesticides were available.[56] Pesticides that have historically been found effective include pyrethroids, dichlorvos, and malathion.[10] Resistance to pesticides has increased significantly over time, and harm to health from their use is of concern.[7] The carbamate insecticide propoxur is highly toxic to bed bugs, but it has potential toxicity to children exposed to it, and the US Environmental Protection Agency has been reluctant to approve it for indoor use.[59]Boric acid, occasionally applied as a safe indoor insecticide, is not effective against bed bugs because they do not groom.[60][dubious discuss] The fungus Beauveria bassiana is being researched as of 2012[update] for its ability to control bed bugs.[61] As bed bugs continue to adapt pesticide resistance, researchers have examined on the insect's genome to see how the adaptations develop and to look for potential vulnerabilities that can be exploited in the growth and development phases.[62]

Natural enemies of bed bugs include the masked hunter insect (also known as "masked bed bug hunter"),[63]cockroaches,[64]ants, spiders (particularly Thanatus flavidus), mites, and centipedes (particularly the house centipede Scutigera coleoptrata). However, biological pest control is not considered practical for eliminating bed bugs from human dwellings.[16]

Bed bugs occur around the world.[65] Rates of infestations in developed countries, while decreasing from the 1930s to the 1980s, have increased dramatically since the 1980s.[7][10][65] Previously, they were common in the developing world, but rare in the developed world.[10] The increase in the developed world may have been caused by increased international travel, resistance to insecticides, and the use of new pest-control methods that do not affect bed bugs.[66][67]

The fall in bed bug populations after the 1930s in the developed world is believed partly due to the use of DDT to kill cockroaches.[68] The invention of the vacuum cleaner and simplification of furniture design may have also played a role.[68] Others believe it might simply be the cyclical nature of the organism.[69]

The exact causes of this resurgence remain unclear; it is variously ascribed to greater foreign travel, increased immigration from the developing world to the developed world, more frequent exchange of second-hand furnishings among homes, a greater focus on control of other pests, resulting in neglect of bed bug countermeasures, and increasing resistance to pesticides.[10][66] Declines in household cockroach populations that have resulted from the use of insecticides effective against this major bed bug predator have aided the bed bugs' resurgence, as have bans on DDT and other potent pesticides.[70]

The common bed bug (C. lectularius) is the species best adapted to human environments. It is found in temperate climates throughout the world. Other species include Cimex hemipterus, found in tropical regions, which also infests poultry and bats, and Leptocimex boueti, found in the tropics of West Africa and South America, which infests bats and humans. Cimex pilosellus and Cimex pipistrella primarily infest bats, while Haematosiphon inodora, a species of North America, primarily infests poultry.[71]

C. lectularius may have originated in the Middle East in caves inhabited by bats and humans.[21]

Bed bugs were mentioned in ancient Greece as early as 400 BC, and were later mentioned by Aristotle. Pliny's Natural History, first published circa 77 AD in Rome, claimed bed bugs had medicinal value in treating ailments such as snake bites and ear infections. (Belief in the medicinal use of bed bugs persisted until at least the 18th century, when Guettard recommended their use in the treatment of hysteria.[72])

Bed bugs were first mentioned in Germany in the 11th century, in France in the 13th century, and in England in 1583,[21] though they remained rare in England until 1670. Some in the 18th century believed bed bugs had been brought to London with supplies of wood to rebuild the city after the Great Fire of London (1666). Giovanni Antonio Scopoli noted their presence in Carniola (roughly equivalent to present-day Slovenia) in the 18th century.[73][74]

Traditional methods of repelling and/or killing bed bugs include the use of plants, fungi, and insects (or their extracts), such as black pepper;[75]black cohosh (Actaea racemosa); Pseudarthria hookeri; Laggera alata (Chinese yngmo co | );[16]Eucalyptus saligna oil;[76][77]henna (Lawsonia inermis or camphire);[78] "infused oil of Melolontha vulgaris" (presumably cockchafer); fly agaric (Amanita muscaria); Actaea spp. (e.g. black cohosh); tobacco; "heated oil of Terebinthina" (i.e. true turpentine); wild mint (Mentha arvensis); narrow-leaved pepperwort (Lepidium ruderale); Myrica spp. (e.g. bayberry); Robert geranium (Geranium robertianum); bugbane (Cimicifuga spp.); "herb and seeds of Cannabis"; "opulus" berries (possibly maple or European cranberrybush); masked hunter bugs (Reduvius personatus), "and many others".[79]

In the mid-19th century, smoke from peat fires was recommended as an indoor domestic fumigant against bed bugs.[80]

Dusts have been used to ward off insects from grain storage for centuries, including "plant ash, lime, dolomite, certain types of soil, and diatomaceous earth or Kieselguhr".[81] Of these, diatomaceous earth in particular has seen a revival as a nontoxic (when in amorphous form) residual pesticide for bed bug abatement. While diatomaceous earth performed poorly, silica gel may be effective.[82][83]

Basket-work panels were put around beds and shaken out in the morning in the UK and in France in the 19th century. Scattering leaves of plants with microscopic hooked hairs around a bed at night, then sweeping them up in the morning and burning them, was a technique reportedly used in Southern Rhodesia and in the Balkans.[84]

Bean leaves have been used historically to trap bedbugs in houses in Eastern Europe. The trichomes on the bean leaves capture the insects by impaling the feet (tarsi) of the insects. The leaves are then destroyed.[85]

Prior to the mid-20th century, bed bugs were very common. According to a report by the UK Ministry of Health, in 1933, all the houses in many areas had some degree of bed bug infestation.[86] The increase in bed bug populations in the early 20th century has been attributed to the advent of electric heating, which allowed bed bugs to thrive year-round instead of only in warm weather.[87]

Bed bugs were a serious problem at U.S. military bases during World War II.[88] Initially, the problem was solved by fumigation, using Zyklon Discoids that released hydrogen cyanide gas, a rather dangerous procedure.[88] Later, DDT was used to good effect as a safer alternative.[88]

The decline of bed bug populations in the 20th century is often credited to potent pesticides that had not previously been widely available.[89] Other contributing factors that are less frequently mentioned in news reports are increased public awareness and slum clearance programs that combined pesticide use with steam disinfection, relocation of slum dwellers to new housing, and in some cases also follow-up inspections for several months after relocated tenants moved into their new housing.[87]

Bed bug infestations resurged since the 1980s[49] for reasons that are not clear, but contributing factors may be complacency, increased resistance, bans on pesticides, and increased international travel.[89] The U.S. National Pest Management Association reported a 71% increase in bed bug calls between 2000 and 2005.[90] The number of reported incidents in New York City alone rose from 500 in 2004 to 10,000 in 2009.[91] In 2013, Chicago was listed as the number 1 city in the United States with the worst bed bug infestation.[92] As a result, the Chicago City Council passed a bed bug control ordinance to limit their spread. Additionally, bed bugs are reaching places in which they never established before, such as southern South America.[93][94]

One recent theory about bed bug reappearance in the US is that they never truly disappeared, but may have been forced to alternative hosts. Consistent with this is the finding that bed bug DNA shows no evidence of an evolutionary bottleneck. Furthermore, investigators have found high populations of bed bugs at poultry facilities in Arkansas. Poultry workers at these facilities may be spreading bed bugs, unknowingly carrying them to their places of residence and elsewhere after leaving work.[95][96]

The saying, "Good night, sleep tight, don't let the bed bugs bite", is common for parents to say to young children before they go to sleep.[97]

In Chhattisgarh, India, bed bugs have been used as a traditional medicine for alopecia, epilepsy, piles, and urinary disorders, but this practice has no scientific basis.[98] Bed bug secretions can inhibit the growth of some bacteria and fungi; antibacterial components from the bed bug could be used against human pathogens, and be a source of pharmacologically active molecules as a resource for the discovery of new drugs.[99]

The word bug and its earlier spelling bugge originally meant "bed bug". Many other creatures are now called "bugs", such as the "ladybug" ("ladybird" outside North America) and the "potato bug"; the word is used informally for any insect, or even microscopic germs or diseases caused by these germs, but the earliest recorded use of the actual word "bug" referred to a bed bug.[100]

The term "bed bug" may also be spelled "bedbug" or "bed-bug", though published sources consistently use the unhyphenated two-word name "bed bug".[101] The pests have been known by a variety of other informal names, including chilly billies, chinche bug, crimson rambler, heavy dragoon, mahogany flat, redcoat, and wall louse.[60]


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