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Post date: April 13th, 2017

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10-Second The Orange Bugle headlines video.

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Bedbug Life Stages – Bedbug Life Cycle

Post date: April 6th, 2017

Bed bugs are nocturnal, reddish-brown insects that feed on the bloodof humans and other warm-blooded animals. These wingless insects have dorsoventrally flattened bodies that allow them to hide in areas such as floor cracks, carpets, beds and upholstered furniture.


A bed bugs life begins with an egg, grain like and milky white in color. Female bed bugs lay between one and five eggs each day and may lie up to 500 eggs within one lifetime. Eggs are laid singly or in clusters and are placed withintight cracks or crevices. The egg is approximately 1 mm in length and is comparable in size to two grains of salt. Within two weeks, eggs hatch and immature bed bugs begin immediately to feed.


These young bed bugs, or nymphs, pass through five molts before reaching maturity. Although nymphs appear similar to adults, they are smaller in size and are not yet sexually mature.Young nymphs are also yellow-white in color, while older nymphs and adults are reddish-brown. In order to complete a molting stage, each nymph requires a blood meal. At room temperature, nymphs molt and become adults within five weeks.

Adults Upon reaching maturity, bed bug adults often make weekly feedings. The life span of a bed bug most commonly ranges from four to six months. However, some bed bugs may live up to a year under cool conditions and with no food.

Cimex lectularius L.

Learn what Bed Bugs look like, and how to detect if you have a Bed Bug Infestation.

Find out how Bed Bugs infiltrate your home and where they are attracted to.

Learn about Bed Bug bites. their feces and how they can impact your health.

Learn how Orkin handles Bed Bugs, homeopathic cures and the cost of Bed Bug extermination services.

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April 5, 2017

One of the most hotly contested debates today involves the recent uptick in violent crime and the extent to which increases in violence may be explained by the "Ferguson effect," whereby the increased scrutiny of police since the 2014 Ferguson unrest has been hypothesized to lead police officers to become more hesitant and less aggressive. Chicago is an epicenter for much of this controversy, and on numerous occasions President Trump has threatened to "send in the feds."

In an article published today in Significance, the official magazine and website of the Royal Statistical Society (RSS) and the American Statistical Association (ASA), Arizona State University professors Sherry Towers and Michael D. White examine violence in Chicago and test whether the trends are consistent with the "Ferguson effect." They also test a competing claim proposed by Former NYPD Commissioner William Bratton that much of the recent violence in Chicago is tied to the proliferation of guns in that city.

Towers and White found no evidence of a Ferguson effect in Chicago.

"Murders and gun assaults in Chicago began increasing before Michael Brown's death in Ferguson," says Towers, a research professor in the Simon A. Levin Mathematical and Computational Modeling Sciences Center at Arizona State University in Tempe.

They did find a strong association between firearms availability and gun violence in Chicago, supporting Commissioner Bratton's argument.

"Our analysis highlights the importance of including measures of firearms proliferation when studying trends in violence in Chicago and elsewhere," says White, a policing expert and professor in the ASU School of Criminology and Criminal Justice in Phoenix.

Explore further: Police view blacks as 'suspects first, civilians second'

More information: Sherry Towers et al. The "Ferguson effect", or too many guns?, Significance (2017). DOI: 10.1111/j.1740-9713.2017.01018.x

Most of the Ferguson protestors believed police view black people as worthless thugs and white people as innocent and superior - perceptions that, true or not, affect police-community relations in an era of persistent racial ...

Even before President Donald Trump tweeted a threat to send "in the Feds" to curb Chicago's gun violence, he was saying on the campaign trail that there was a simple solution to the bloodshed: police should get tougher. Chicago ...

Hiring more black police officers is not a viable strategy for reducing police-involved homicides of black citizens in most cities, according to new Indiana University research that is the first in-depth study of this increasingly ...

Do violent video games such as 'Mortal Kombat,' 'Halo' and 'Grand Theft Auto' trigger teenagers with symptoms of depression or attention deficit disorder to become aggressive bullies or delinquents? No, according to Christopher ...

Recent negative publicity surrounding police after several shootings of unarmed civilians appears to have diminished some officers' motivation to be in law enforcement but does not decrease willingness to carry out their ...

It's hard to go a day without seeing news of violence in some form occurring in schools around the country, and Chicago is often cited as a city where crime rates in schools are particularly high. In a new study in the current ...

Oxford University researchers have tracked how recent aircraft incidents or accidents trigger past events and how some are consistently more memorable than others. Using the English version of Wikipedia, they analysed articles ...

A classicist, biologist and computer scientist all walk into a roomwhat comes next isn't the punchline but a new method to analyze relationships among ancient Latin and Greek texts, developed in part by researchers from ...

Approximately 13,500 years after nomadic Clovis hunters crossed the frozen land bridge from Asia to North America, researchers are still asking questions and putting together clues as to how they not only survived in a new ...

A study of the DNA in ancient skeletal remains adds to the evidence that indigenous groups living today in southern Alaska and the western coast of British Columbia are descendants of the first humans to make their home in ...

A cave in southern Oregon that is the site of some the oldest preserved evidence of human activity in North America was also once home to not-too-distant cousins of the common bed bug.

Two monkeys grooming each other about 20-30 million years ago may have helped produce a remarkable new find - the first fossilized red blood cells from a mammal, preserved so perfectly in amber that they appear to have been ...

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Now in the movies the good guys shoot them in the face.

That is the new message we send youth today.

This article provides no data whatsoever, and very little info regarding the assumptions, data quality, and rejection criteria. The referenced article is pay-walled. What a waste.

Gotta give you a 5 on that one, @Shake. At least if we can't see the article, let's try to get a little more of the hard data on these, shall we? I think this should be sent as feedback to the editors. There's a button for that up there.

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Bed Bug Life Cycle – City of Sioux Falls

Post date: April 5th, 2017

Life Cycle/Biology of Bedbugs

The female bedbug will seek out areas that meet three requirements: water, food, and shelter. Because humans are their main food source they will often find harborage in areas close to people where they can feed without being harmed. This is usually close to a bed where people sleep, on mattresses, headboards, footboards, or end tables. The female can lay up to 5 eggs a day throughout her life, which could be as long as 612 months; that is more than 1,000 eggs per female per lifetime!

The eggs are attached to a surface with a cement-like substance, making sure that they arent easily disrupted or dislodged. The eggs are very small and translucent. They will hatch approximately one week later to the first of five nymphal stages, or instars.

The nymph is originally very small (1 mm) and light in color. They require the blood of a host in order to molt to the next stage of development, progressively growing to 4 or 5 mm in size and getting darker as they mature. In the absence of a host, bed bugs can live for months without a blood meal and remain dormant until resources are available. The nymphs will progress through the five stages over a period of about one month before becoming adults.

Adult bedbugs are approximately 7 mm in size and can live for approximately one year in optimal environments. As long as adequate resources are available, they will thrive. You can imagine the number of bedbugs that can exist in an area if left unaddressed!

Image used with permission: MidMos Solutions Ltd.

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A report out of Australia demonstrates for the first time that bed bugs can induce a potentially dangerous (and possibly even deadly) systemic reaction in individuals repeatedly exposed to them.

Editors note: This article is based on an Oct. 26, 2016, paper in Austral Entomology (Australian Entomological Society) titled Systemic and erythrodermic reactions following repeated exposure to bites from the Common bed bug Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). The paper can be found here. The following information is reprinted in PCT with permission of Stephen Doggett, Department of Medical Entomology, Pathology West Westmead Hospital, Westmead, Australia.

As always, pest management professionals should never offer medical advice to their clients. This article is provided for informational purposes only.

Bed bugs (Cimex spp.) readily bite humans, producing a range of cutaneous reactions. This article documents systemic reactions in two patients following repeated bites from the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius. Both patients had previously fed bed bugs on themselves without any serious complication, however, upon feeding a new batch of the insects, they subsequently developed systemic urticarial reactions. Both were admitted to an emergency department for treatment and subsequently made a full recovery.

Patient 1 fed 40 to 50 bed bugs on himself and after eight minutes, he developed itch, swelling of the face, lethargy, profuse sweating and widespread wheals on the torso and limbs. The reaction disappeared in five hours after treatment with systemic prednisone and antihistamines. Patient 2 developed a similar reaction after feeding five to six bed bugs on himself. In this case, the patient also developed chest tightness and breathing difficulties. Following a similar treatment, symptoms disappeared in four hours.

In light of the increasing exposure of this insect to the general public, systemic reactions in patients may present more commonly to the medical practitioner. This report demonstrates how bed bugs can be a serious threat to the health of the community. If people are constantly exposed to bed bug bites (especially in low-income housing), then the effects can be extremely harmful to the individual.

DISCUSSION. There are a limited number of published cases of systemic reactions to bed bugs and symptomology has been ill defined. Consequently, these reactions can create a diagnostic dilemma for health-care professionals. A diverse number of dermatological differential diagnoses exist. Multiple bed bug bites are typically characterized by a cluster or linear distribution of erythematous macular lesions and can progress to wheals and widespread urticarial (Doggett & Russell 2009).

Although rare, systemic reactions can involve widespread pruritis, asthma, anaphylaxis and fever (Doggett et al. 2012). There is increasing evidence to support sensitization after initial exposure to bed bugs with the latency period between bed bug bite and cutaneous reaction decreasing substantially between subsequent bites (Reinhardt et al. 2009).

In the case of the 28-year-old male, he had been exposed to bed bug bites since November 2012 and has developed progressively more severe cutaneous reactions from each subsequent bite.

CONCLUSION. Physical impacts of bed bug bites are of growing concern, and there has been a surge of legal disputes throughout the western world recently. State and local governments have been overwhelmed with complaints by residents in regards to bed bug infestations, which are at times resistant to pest control measures (Aultman 2013). Bed bug infestations have become a particular problem among the socially disadvantaged, where infestations often go untreated, leading to massive bed bug populations and ongoing bites. Therefore, patients with systemic reactions may increasingly present to medical practitioners.

Bernardeschi C, Le Cleach L, Delaunay P & Chosidow O. 2013. Bed bug infestation. British Medical Journal 346, f1044.

Dang K, Lilly DG, Bu W & Doggett SL. 2015. Simple, rapid and cost-effective technique for the detection of pyrethroid resistance in bed bugs, Cimex spp. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). Austral Entomology 54, 191196.

Deshazo RD, Feldlaufer MF, Mihm MC & Goddard J. 2012. Bullous reactions to bedbug bites reflect cutaneous vasculitis. American Journal of Medicine 125, 688694.

Doggett SL & Russell RC. 2008. The resurgence of bed bugs, Cimex spp. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) in Australia. In: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Urban Pests, Budapest, Hungary, 1316 July 2008 (eds WH Robinson & D Bajomi), pp. 407425. OOK-Press, Budapest, Hungary.

Doggett SL & Russell RC. 2009. Bed bugs. What the GP needs to know. Australian Family Physician 38, 880884.

Doggett SL, Orton CJ, Lilly DG & Russell RC. 2011. Bed bugs: the Australian response. Insects 2, 96111.

Doggett SL,Dwyer DE, Penas PF&Russell RC. 2012.Bed bugs: clinical relevance and control options. ClinicalMicrobiology Reviews 25, 164192.

Goddard J & De Shazo R. 2009a. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) and clinical consequences of their bites. Journal of the American Medical Association 301, 13581366.

Goddard J & De Shazo R. 2009b. Multiple feeding by the common bed bug, Cimex lectularis, without sensitization.Midsouth Entomologist 2, 9092.

Goddard J, Hasenkampf N, Edwards KT, De Shazo R & Embers ME. 2013. Bed bug saliva causes release of monocytic inflammatory mediators: plausible cause of cutaneous bite reactions. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 161, 127130.

LeverkusM, Jochim RC, Schd S et al. 2006. Bullous allergic hypersensitivity to bed bug bitesmediated by IgE against salivary nitrophorin. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 126, 9196.

Lilly DG, ZaluckiMP, Orton CJ, Russell RC,Webb CE&Doggett SL. 2015. Confirmation of insecticide resistance in Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) in Australia. Austral Entomology 54, 9699.

Phan C, Brunet-Possenti F, Marinho E & Petit A. 2016. Systemic reactions caused by bed bug bites. Clinical Infectious Diseases 63, 284285.

Potter MF, Haynes KF & Fredericks J. 2015. Bed bugs across America. Pestworld November/December, 414.

Price JB, Divjan A, MontfortWR, Stansfield KH, Freyer GA & Perzanowski MS. 2012. IgE against bedbug (Cimex lectularius) allergens are common among adults bitten by bed bugs. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 129, 863865.

Reinhardt K, Kempke D, Naylor RA & Siva-Jothy MT. 2009. Sensitivity to bites by the bedbug, Cimex lectularius. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 23, 163166.

Stucki A & Ludwig R. 2008. Images in clinical medicine. Bedbug bites. New England Journal of Medicine 359, 1047.

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During its lifetime, a bed bug will go through three distinct stages. The first stage is the egg. A bed bug egg measures roughly one millimeter which is approximately the size of two grains of salt next to each other. The egg itself is oval and is opaque white in color. This stage lasts from ten days to approximately two weeks. The next stage of the bed bugs life is the nymph stage. In the nymph stage the bed bug begins to feed. In fact, a bed bug must feed on blood at least once before it is able to molt and go on to its next nymph phase. The nymph stage can be broken into five phases because the nymph will molt five times before reaching maturity. In each of these phases the bed bug will grow approximately a half of a millimeter. At the first nymph phase they will be one and a half millimeters long, growing to four and a half millimeters long by the fifth stage. The nymph stage of the bed bugs life cycle takes from five to six weeks. The last stage of the bed bugs life is the mature bed bug stage. At this point a bed bug will both feed on human blood as well as have the ability to reproduce.

Originally posted here: What is the life cycle of a bed bug? | EcoRaider Natural ...
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A pest of the past? Not anymore. Bed bugs are making a comeback. People associate this biting pest with filthy living conditions, but bed bugs are just as likely to live in clean, uncluttered homes. Get to know the habits and traits of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, so you will recognize this nuisance insect.


The adult bed bug is oval and flat, and only about a 1/4-inch long. They lack wings, so you won't see them flying around your bedroom.

Under cover of darkness, they crawl in search of blood, preferably from a human. Bed bugs use a piercing, sucking proboscis to penetrate the skin of their host. Adults are brown, but appear reddish-brown when engorged with blood.

Bed bug young look like smaller versions of their parents. First stage nymphs are colorless; with each molt, the nymph darkens. White eggs measure less than 1 mm in length, and may be laid singly or in clusters of up to 50 eggs.

Although you won't usually see bed bug activity during daylight hours, but you may see other signs of bed bugs. As nymphs molt, they leave behind their shedded skins, which accumulate as the population rises. Bed bug excrement appears as dark spots, and crushed bed bugs will leave bloody marks on bed linens.


Kingdom - Animalia Phylum - Arthropoda Class Insecta Order Hemiptera Family - Cimicidae Genus - Cimex Species - lectularius


Bed bugs feed on the blood of warm-blooded animals, including humans. They usually feed at night, often on people asleep in bed and unaware of the insects biting them.

Life Cycle:

A few bed bugs can become a large infestation quickly. One female bed bug may produce up to 500 offspring during its lifetime, and three generations can live per year.

Imagine how many bed bugs you'd have in a year if just one reproductive pair finds its way into your home. As with any pest, knowing its life cycle will help you eliminate it. Bed bugs undergo incomplete metamorphosis.

Egg The female lays her eggs, usually in clusters of less than 50. She uses a sticky substance to glue her eggs to rough surfaces. Eggs hatch in 1-2 weeks. Nymph The nymph must consume a bloodmeal before it can molt. It molts 5 times to reach adulthood. In warmer temperatures, the nymph stage may last just 3 weeks; in cooler temperatures, nymphs may take many months to mature. Adult Adult bed bugs live about 10 months, though some may live substantially longer.

Special Adaptations and Defenses:

Bed bugs locate their warm-blooded hosts by detecting exhaled carbon dioxide. The hungry pests can also sense warmth and moisture from the bodies of potential victims.

Once the bed bug pierces the skin of a human or other host, it injects salivary fluid to prevent blood from clotting as it drinks. This fluid may cause an itchy, allergic reaction on the skin of the victim.


Bed bugs hide in the folds, crevices, and seams of upholstered furniture and mattresses. They depend on humans, pets, or other animals for their food, so a suitable host must be available for regular bloodmeals.

Once these pests find a meal ticket, they move in for good.


Cimex lectularius lives in temperate climates, especially in the north. Bed bugs infestations are on the rise in North America, Europe, and Central Asia.

bed louse, mahogany flat, redcoat, wall louse

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CONSUMER REPORTS - The sight of bed bugs is enough to put a damper on your vacation but the bites can cause a variety of symptoms from secondary skin infections like impetigo and ecthyma to allergic reactions and in rare cases anaphylaxis which can impair breathing and require a trip to the ER.

With spring break coming up, the experts at Consumer Reports share some tips to keep the bed bugs away during your next hotel stay. Some simple steps when you check in can help avoid hassles and expenses when you check out.

It might sound extreme, but to be safe, put your luggage in the bathroom as soon as you enter the hotel room.

Bed bugs prefer anything dark and creviced that they can hide in like bedding, seams of fabric, furniture, even inside walls so the bathroom is usually a the safe zone while you search the room for signs of critters.

Check the sheets, mattress and box spring for any signs of bed bugs. Look for dark, rust colored spots and exoskeletons - the casings the bugs leave behind. Dont forget to look at the head of the bed and in, around and behind the headboard, too.

Be sure to lift and check under the mattress, too. While this room was clear its important to take action if you do find anything suspicious.

If you find any signs of bed bugs alert the manager immediately and ask for a new room in a different part of the hotel. Infestations can spread from wall to wall.

Even if your room is clear Consumer Reports says its a good idea to keep your luggage and clothes on off the floor on a hard surface or luggage rack, clear of any potential bed bug zones.

Consumer Reports says when you get home throw all of your clothes into a hot dryer for 30 minutes. And store your empty luggage in your basement, garage or a hot attic.

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Insect bites are from mosquitos, spiders, flies, ticks, and other species that use their mandibles (jaws) to attach to a person or other animal. They can then suck blood out of their "prey" and leave saliva proteins that cause itching and swelling. Other insect species, like bees, yellow jackets, wasps, hornets and fire ants actually inject venom into their prey and can not only cause localized pain and swelling, but severe, acute allergic reactions in persons who are allergic. ...Read more

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